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黄土高原小流域淤地坝监测
喻权刚, 马安利
黄河水利委员会黄河上中游管理局, 陕西西安 710021
摘要:
[目的] 为了探索小流域淤地坝监测的内容、指标、方法,分析淤地坝建设效益,更好地为淤地坝规划、建设、运行管理服务。[方法] 2005-2010年,在黄土高原不同水土流失类型区选择了12条典型小流域坝系,布设监测点,采用遥感、水沙观测、调查等方法,连续开展淤地坝工程建设动态、拦沙蓄水、坝地利用及增产效益、坝系工程安全等监测。分析了淤地坝建设与坝系配置、坡面治理、拦沙蓄水、坝地利用等之间的关系。[结果] 小流域淤地坝坝系在拦截泥沙、蓄洪滞洪、减蚀固沟、增地增收、促进农村生产条件和生态环境改善等方面发挥了显著的生态、社会和经济效益。[结论] 建议在淤地坝建设中以小流域为单元,以骨干坝为主体,骨干坝、中型坝、小型淤地坝相结合,形成稳定的淤地坝坝系。
关键词:  黄土高原  淤地坝  监测
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2015.01.022
分类号:
基金项目:水利部公益性行业科研专项"小流域淤地坝坝系防洪风险评价技术"(201201084)
Silt Storage Dam Monitor at Small Watershed in Loess Plateau Region
YU Quangang, MA Anli
Upper and Middle Yellow River Bureau, YRCC, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710021, China
Abstract:
[Objective] To explore the monitoring content, index and methods of silt storage dam at small watershed, analyze the benefit of warping dam construction, consequently serve planning, construction, operation and management of warp land dam preferably.[Methods] The 12 typical small watershed damming system were selected to set up monitor points, and use the methods of remote sensing, water and sediment observation, investigation, etc. To continuously develop the dynamic warping dam engineering, construction, soil and water retention, dam land use and its yield reproduction, safety of dam system in the different soil erosion type zone on the Loess Plateau from 2005 to 2010. We analyzed the relationships between silt storage dam construction and dam system configuration, slope control, soil and water retention, dam field use, etc.[Results] The dam system gave play to obvious ecological, social and economic benefits in flood and sediment control and rural production condition enhancement.[Conclusions] The dam system construction should obey the principle of combination of large-sized, middle-sized and small-sized ones with the key dam as the main and a small watershed as unit.
Key words:  Loess Plateau  silt storage dam  monitor