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塔里木河上中游荒漠河岸林植物群落对淹灌的响应
李金1,2, 徐海量3, 王勇辉1,2, 赵新风3, 高生峰1,2
1.新疆师范大学 地理科学与旅游学院, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830054;2.自治区重点实验室 干旱区环境与资源实验室, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830054;3.中国科学院 新疆生态与地理研究所, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011
摘要:
[目的]定量分析淹灌对典型断面荒漠河岸林植物群落的长势、植物多样性的影响,为今后改进干旱区科学补水方案,实现生态水高效利用提供理论依据。[方法]通过2016—2018年6次在塔里木河上中游进行植被调查获得数据,运用Pielou指数、Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数以及重要值等指标对淹灌的影响进行分析。[结果]淹灌2 a后,塔里木河上中游新增了11种植物,主要是胡杨苗、柽柳苗、喜湿植物以及一年生草本,其中胡杨苗密度增加0.72株/m2,增长率为855.9%;柽柳新枝长增加41.8 cm,增长率为71.58%,胡杨长势得到好转:优、中等胡杨出现频率增加0.11株/m2,增长率为32%;随着距生态闸距离的增加,胡杨林密度有减小的趋势,林龄老龄化也逐渐凸显;林下物种多样性有随淹灌距离的增加而减少的趋势;距生态闸300 m范围内以胡杨、柽柳幼苗及喜湿的一年或多年生草本植物成为优势种(其重要值分别为0.243,0.195,0.248),大于300 m后优势种逐渐被柽柳、耐旱的多年生草本植物所取代,一年生草本植物、胡杨苗在距生态闸450 m后消失。[结论]淹灌使荒漠河岸林植物群落更新能力增强,物种多样性增加。为了维持目前的生态好转趋势,淹灌工程需要继续开展。
关键词:  淹灌  多样性指数  重要值  荒漠河岸林  塔里木河上中游
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.03.006
分类号:S727.22;S607+1
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“塔里木河胡杨径向生长与水分关系研究”(41461045);新疆维吾尔自治区青年科技创新人才培养工程—优秀青年科技创新人才培养项目(2013721032)
Response of Riparian Forest Plant Communities to Flood Irrigation in Upper and Middle Reaches of Tarim River
Li Jin1,2, Xu Hailiang3, Wang Yonghui1,2, Zhao Xinfeng3, Gao Shengfeng1,2
1.School of Geographic Science and Tourism, Xinjiang Normal University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830054, China;2.Laboratory of Environment and Resources in Arid Region, Key Laboratory of Autonomous Region, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830054, China;3.Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The influences of flooding on the growth and plant diversity of typical riparian forest communities in the desert was quantitatively analyzed in order to provide a theoretical basis for improving the scientific water replenishment plan and the efficient use of ecological water in arid area.[Methods] Data were obtained from vegetation surveys in the upper and middle reaches of the Tarim River from 2016 to 2018. The impacts of flooding were analyzed using the Pielou index, Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index and important values.[Results] After flooding for 2 years, 11 new plants were found in the upper and middle reaches of the Tarim River, mainly Populus euphratica, Tamarix chinensis, hygrophilous plant and annual herb. The density of P. euphratica increased by 0.72 plants/m2, with a growth rate of 855.9%. The new branch length of T. chinensis increased by 41.8 cm, and the growth rate was 71.58%. The growth of P. euphratica was significantly improved as the occurrence of good quality P. euphratica increased by 0.11 plants/m2 with a growth rate of 32%. With the increase of the distance from ecological gate, the density of P. euphratica forest showed a tendency of decrease, and the aging of the forest became more prominent. The species diversity under the forest showed a tendency of decrease with the increase of the flooding distance. Within 300 m from the ecological gate, the seedlings of P. euphratica, T. chinensis and the hygrophilous one year or perennial herb became the dominant species (the important values were 0.243, 0.195 and 0.248, respectively). When the distance was greater than 300 m, the dominant species were gradually replaced by perennial herbs of T. chinensis and drought-tolerant herbs. The annual herb, P. euphratica and T. chinensis disappeared at 450 m away from the ecological gate.[Conclusion] Flooding irrigation enhanced the regeneration ability of plant communities and species diversity in desert riparian forests. In order to maintain the current ecological improvement trend, the flood irrigation project needs to be continued.
Key words:  irrigation  diversity index  important value  desert riparian forest  upper and middle reaches of Tarim River