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巴基斯坦波特瓦尔高原土壤侵蚀调查报告
陈同德1, 朱梦阳2, 焦菊英1,3, 安韶山1,3, 税军峰1,3, 杨阳1, Fakher Abbas1
1.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.西北大学 城市与环境学院, 陕西 西安 710127;3.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
[目的]开展巴基斯坦的土壤侵蚀调查与典型单元的定量评价研究,旨在为巴基斯坦土壤侵蚀防治和了解泛第三极生态环境现状提供科学依据。[方法]在巴基斯坦北部的波特瓦尔高原,沿着穆里—伊斯兰堡—拉瓦尔品第—古杰尔汗—杰格瓦尔—保恩路线,选择了15个调查单元(12个小流域,3个矩形区),于2019年4月16—20日,对调查单元内的土壤侵蚀类型与特征、土地利用类型和水土保持措施等进行了调查。[结果]波特瓦尔高原的林地、草地整体土壤侵蚀较轻,以片蚀为主;土壤侵蚀主要发生在建设用地,开挖边坡、排土边坡、土路边坡和砖厂平台等人为形成的边坡和裸露平台在降雨和径流的作用下产生沟蚀;部分自然山坡因过度放牧,发生重力侵蚀和沟蚀。15个调查单元的平均土壤侵蚀速率平均值介于51.40~1 338.91 t/(km2·a)之间。[结论]波特瓦尔高原的土壤侵蚀主要发生在建设用地,应对生产建设项目引起的土壤侵蚀进行监督治理,同时通过试验开发匹配的土壤侵蚀防治措施;北部穆里地区是巴基斯坦重要的水源涵养地,需要对该地区大量的建设项目进行合理的规划与审批,防止土壤侵蚀加剧,引起水质和生态环境恶化;应加强沟壑区溯源侵蚀的研究与防控,以保护农田,确保粮食安全;需加强对该区土壤侵蚀基础数据的采集,并对不同尺度的土壤侵蚀发生机理与过程进行研究,切实保障巴基斯坦土地资源。
关键词:  巴基斯坦  波特瓦尔高原  土地利用  土壤侵蚀调查  CSLE
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.03.048
分类号:S157
基金项目:中国科学院战略性先导科技专项“泛第三极环境变化与绿色丝绸之路建设”子课题“土壤侵蚀定量评价与分区防控对策”(XDA20040202)
Investigation on Soil Erosion in Pothohar Plateau Area of Pakistan
Chen Tongde1, Zhu Mengyang2, Jiao Juying1,3, An Shaoshan1,3, Shui Junfeng1,3, Yang yang1, Fakher Abbas1
1.State Key Laboratory of Erosion and Dryland Agriculture on the Loess Plateaus, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.College of Urban and Environmental Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710127, China;3.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The research aims to investigate soil erosion in Pakistan in order to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of soil erosion in Pakistan and for the understanding of the ecological environment status in Pan-Third Pole.[Methods] The Pothohar Plateau in Northern Pakistan was selected as the representative area of soil erosion in the country. Along the route of Muree-Islamabad-Rawalpindi-Gucer Khan-Jagwar-Bowen, 15 investigation units (12 small watersheds and 3 rectangular areas) were selected to investigate the types and characteristics of soil erosion, land use types and soil and water conservation measures from April 16 to 20, 2019.[Results] The overall soil erosion of woodland and grassland was relatively light with sheet erosion as the main type. Soil erosion mainly occurred in construction land. Gully erosion was caused by rainfall and runoff on excavated slopes, dump slopes, roadside slopes and brick factory platforms. Due to overgrazing, gravity erosion and gully erosion occurred in some natural hillsides. The average soil erosion modulus of the 15 investigation units was 51.40~1 338.91 t/(km·a).[Conclusion] The soil erosion in Pothohar Plateau mainly occurred in construction land. The soil erosion caused by development and construction projects should be supervised and controlled. Meanwhile, matching soil erosion prevention measures should be developed through science experiments. The Muree region in the north is an important water conservation area in Pakistan, which requires rational planning and approval of a large number of construction projects to prevent the intensifying of soil erosion and the deterioration of water quality and ecological environment. The research and control on headwater erosion in gully region should be strengthened to protect farmland and ensure food security. It is necessary to strengthen the collection of basic data on soil erosion, and to study the mechanism and process of soil erosion at different scales in order to protect the land resources in Pakistan.
Key words:  Pakistan  the Pothohar Plateau  land use types  soil erosion investigation  CSLE