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城市建设用地海绵化程度对地表径流水质的影响——以浙江省嘉兴市为例
陈前虎1, 李玉莲1, 黄初冬1, 王贤萍2
1.浙江工业大学 建筑工程学院, 浙江 杭州 310023;2.嘉兴市规划设计研究院, 浙江 嘉兴 314000
摘要:
[目的]探究海绵化程度与地表径流水质的关系,为缓解当前地表径流污染的海绵设施建设提供理论依据。[方法]以国家首批海绵城市试点嘉兴市为例,选取20个不同海绵化程度的项目为研究单元,建立可表征海绵设施类型、数量和布局等海绵化程度的指标,并采用冗余分析、偏最小二乘法、Origin拟合方程等方法进行分析。[结果]①样本中居住小区和公共建筑区域的水质均未满足地表水Ⅳ类及污水排放二级标准;已改造建设用地水质普遍优于未改造建设用地。②绿地和有效不透水下垫面(effective impervious area,EIA)比例是影响径流水质的关键因素,其中悬浮物(SS),生化需氧量(BOD5)和化学需氧量(COD)是主要受影响指标。③为使径流水质达到海绵城市建设要求,不同海绵化程度下的用地需要管控的指标阈值有差异。[结论]EIA≈0时,绿地比例应不低于31%;EIA=0.04(TIA)1.7时[其中TIA (total impervious area)为总不透水下垫面]绿地比例应不低于38.5%;EIA=TIA时,绿地比例应不低于47%;若维持现行的城市绿地比例(约为35%)建设标准,EIA比例应不超过9%。
关键词:  海绵化程度  径流水质  有效不透水下垫面  冗余分析  偏最小二乘法
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.001
分类号:TU984
基金项目:国家重大社科项目"海绵城市建设的风险评估与管理机制研究"(16ZDA018)
Effects of Spongification Degree on Surface Runoff Water Quality in Urban Construction Land—A Case Study in Jiaxing City of Zhejiang Province
Chen Qianhu1, Li Yulian1, Huang Chudong1, Wang Xianping2
1.College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310023, China;2.Jiaxing Planning and Design Research Institute, Jiaxing, Zhejiang 314000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] This paper aims at exploring the relationship between the spongification degree and the quality of surface runoff, so as to provide guidance for the construction of sponge facilities alleviating current surface runoff pollution.[Methods] Jiaxing City is one of the pilot sponge cities in China and was taken as a study area, where 20 projects with different spongification degrees were selected as analysis units. Indicators were established reflecting the spongification degree, such as the type, quantity and layout of sponge facilities. Redundancy analysis, partial least squares method and Origin fitting equation were introduced in the study.[Results] ① Neither the water quality of residential area nor of public buildings areas attained class Ⅳ of surface water and secondary standards for sewage discharge. The water quality of the sponging-transformed area was generally better than that of the untransformed area. ② The area ratio of green space to effective impervious area(EIA) is the key factor affecting runoff water quality, of which suspended solids(SS), bichemical oxygen demand(BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand(COD) are the mainly affected indicators. ③ In order to make the runoff water quality meet the requirements of sponge city construction, thresholds for the control of land use under different spongification degree should be different.[Conclusion] When EIA≈0, the proportion of green space should be no less than 31%; when EIA=0.04(TIA)1.7 (TIA is the total impervious area), the proportion of green space should be no less than 38.5%; when EIA=TIA, the proportion of green space should be no less than 47%. The ratio of EIA should not exceed 9% under the current urban green space ratio standard(about 35%).
Key words:  spongification degree  runoff water quality  effective impervious area  redundancy analysis  partial least squares regression analysis