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晋江西溪流域土地利用变化的输沙响应
吴慧凤1,2,3, 陈莹1,2,3
1.福建师范大学 地理研究所, 福建 福州 350007;2.福建师范大学 湿润亚热带山地生态国家重点 实验室培养基地, 福建 福州 350007;3.福建省陆地灾害监测评估工程技术研究中心, 福建 福州 350007
摘要:
[目的]对晋江西溪流域不同子流域的产沙情况进行模拟与分析,并模拟单一土地利用类型对输沙量的影响,为晋江流域水资源质量改善提供科学支撑。[方法]构建流域月产沙的HSPF (hydrological simulation program in fortran)模型,分析实际情况下的产沙情况,模拟园地、耕地和林地3种不同极端土地利用情景对流域输沙量的影响。[结果]①月泥沙的相关系数(R2)、Nash-Suttcliffe效率系数(Ens)、相对误差(Re)在率定期分别为0.849,0.789和-5.720%,在验证期分别为0.836,0.837和10.790%,模型具有较高的精度;②年平均产沙量较高的地区主要分布在园地和耕地比例相对较高区域;③从年尺度上看,园地、耕地和林地情景的输沙量与基期相比变化情况分别为23.56%,20.39%和-17.42%。从月尺度上看,所有情景在丰水期的输沙量都大于枯水期,其中5月和7月3种土地利用情景的输沙量表现为:耕地 > 园地 > 林地,6月和8月3种土地利用情景的输沙量表现为:园地 > 耕地 > 林地;④山地茶果园不合理开发和坡耕地比重较大且没有采取合适的水土保持措施是园地和耕地情景年输沙量上升的主要原因,林地遭受破坏且林种结构不合理是林地情景降低输沙量有限的主要原因。[结论]HSPF模型在流域输沙量模拟中具有较高精度;研究区园地和耕地导致输沙量上升,林地可降低输沙量但降低幅度有限。
关键词:  土地利用变化  HSPF模型  输沙量  西溪流域  水利资源的管理  保护与改造
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.008
分类号:TV213.4
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目"土地利用变化对流域洪水风险的影响及其不确定性分析"(41301031);福建省科技厅省属公益类科研专项"晋江流域非一致性洪水风险演变与归因"(2018R1034-3)
Sediment Discharge Response to Land-use Change in Xixi Basin of Jinjiang River
Wu Huifeng1,2,3, Chen Ying1,2,3
1.Institue of Geography, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, China;2.State Key Laboratory for Subtropical Mountain Ecology of the Ministry Science and Technology and Fujian Province, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, China;3.Fujian Provincial Engineering Research Center for Monitoring and Assessing Terrestrial Disasters, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The sediment yield of sub-watersheds in the real situation was analyzed, and the impact of single land use type on sediment yield was simulated in the control area of the Anxi hydrological station in the Xixi watershed of Jinjang basin in order to provide scientific support for the management of water resource in the basin.[Methods] HSPF (hydrological simulation program in Fortran) was applied to simulate the sediment discharge under three extreme land use change.[Results] ① R2, Ens, and Re were 0.849, 0.789, and -5.720% in the calibration period, respectively, and were 0.836, 0.837, and 10.790% in verification period, respectively, indicating the high precision of HSPF. ② The areas with higher annual average sediment yield are mainly distributed in areas with relatively high proportion of garden and forest. ③ From the perspective of yearly scale, comparing to the measured values in 2006, the sediment discharge increased 23.56% under garden scene, increased 20.39% under cropland scene, decreased 17.42% under forest scene. From the perspective of monthly scale, the sediment discharges of all the scenes during the wet period were greater than that of the dry period. The sediment discharge of the three landuse scene in May and July was:cropland > garden > forest, while sediment discharge in June and August was:garden > cropland > forest. ④ The unreasonable development of mountain tea orchard and the large proportion of sloping farmland and the lack of appropriate soil and water conservation measures are the main reasons for the increase of sediment discharge in the garden and cropland. The damage of forest and the unreasonable forest category structure are the reasons for the limited amount of reducing sediment discharge of forest scene.[Conclusion] HSPF has high precision in the simulation of sediment yield in watersheds; Garden plot and cultivated land could result in the increase of sediment yield, and forest land could result in the decrease of sediment yield while its amplitude was limited in the study area.
Key words:  land use change  HSPF model  sediment discharge  the Xixi watershed