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黄土丘陵沟壑区典型灌木林地枯落物的蓄积特征及持水性能
张宝琦1, 王忠禹1, 杨艳芬1,2, 张娜娜1, 李永宁1
1.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712700;2.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712700
摘要:
[目的]对黄土丘陵区不同植被枯落物层持水效能进行研究,为该区植被恢复和水土流失防治提供理论基础。[方法]以柠条、沙棘、狼牙刺、杠柳4种典型灌木林地枯落物层为研究对象,采用室内浸泡法对其水文效应特征进行分析。[结果]①沙棘林地地表枯落物蓄积量最大(1.048 kg/m2);沙棘林地土壤中枯落物量最大(0.674 kg/m2);土壤中枯落物占枯落物总蓄积量的20.15%~68.75%,其中柠条和狼牙刺土壤中枯落物高于地表枯落物。②地表枯落物和混入土壤枯落物的持水量均随浸泡时间呈极显著对数函数关系(R2 ≥ 0.745,p<0.01),地表枯落物5 min持水量可以达到最大持水量的40%,且与最大持水量存在显著的幂函数关系(R2=0.38,p<0.01),可以通过5 min持水量来拟合最大持水量,而混入土壤枯落物并没有呈现这一规律。混入土壤枯落物的持水量显著大于地表,其中地表枯落物有效持水量杠柳最大(2.13 g/g),土壤中枯落物有效持水量柠条最大(1.90 g/g)。③地表枯落物有效拦蓄量沙棘林地最大,为21.16 t/hm2;土壤中枯落物有效拦蓄量柠条林地最大,为10.01 t/hm2;土壤中枯落物拦蓄量的校正系数变化范围在0.18~0.42之间。[结论]土壤中枯落物不容忽视,其混入量占枯落物总蓄积量的1/5甚至2/3以上;柠条总有效持水量最大,而受枯落物类型和积累量的影响,沙棘总拦蓄能力最大,具有较强的水源涵养和水土保持功能。
关键词:  土壤中枯落物  蓄积量  持水量  黄土丘陵区  灌木
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.012
分类号:S714.7
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目"基于RUSLE模型的黄土高原草地植被覆盖因子研究"(41771555);国家自然科学基金重点项目"退耕驱动近地表特性变化对侵蚀过程的影响及其动力机制"(41530858), "黄土高原气候和土地利用变化对土壤侵蚀的影响及不确定性分析" (41501301)
Accumulation and Water-holding Capacity of Typical Shrub Woodland Litters in Loess Hilly Region
Zhang Baoqi1, Wang Zhongyu1, Yang Yanfen1,2, Zhang Nana1, Li Yongning1
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.Institute Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & MWR, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The water-holding efficiency of different vegetation litter was studied in order to provide a theoretical basis for vegetation restoration and soil erosion control in loess hilly region.[Methods] The hydrological effect of the litter layers of four typical shrub woodlands (Caragana korshinskii, Hippophae rhamnoides, Sophora viciifolia and Periploca sepium) were studied, using indoor immersion method.[Results] ① The stock of the litter surface in Hippophae rhamnoides was the largest(1.048 kg/m2). The amount of litter in the soil of Caragana korshinskii was the largest(0.769 kg/m2). In addition, the litter in the soil accounted for 20.15%~55.92% of the total accumulated amount of litter, and the litter in the soil of Caragana korshinskii and Sophora viciifolia was higher than that of the surface litter. ② The water-holding capacity of litter on the surface and the litter in the soil showed a very significant logarithmic function with the immersion time(R2 ≥ 0.745, p<0.01). The water-holding capacity of surface litter could reach 40% of the maximum water holding capacity in 5 min, and there was a significant power function relationship with the maximum water holding capacity(R2=0.38, p<0.01), that was to say, the maximum water-holding capacity of the surface litter could be fitted by the water holding capacity of 5 min, but this rule was not found for the litter in the soil. The water-holding capacity of the litter in the soil was significantly higher than the surface. The surface litter of the Periploca sepium had the highest effective water-holding capacity(2.13 g/g). What's more, the litter in the soil of Caragana korshinskii had the highest effective water-holding capacity(1.90 g/g). ③ The surface litter of Hippophae rhamnoides had the largest effective retaining content of 21.16 t/hm2. The litter in the soil of Caragana korshinskii had the highest effective retaining capacity(10.01 t/hm2). The correction coefficient of litter retaining content in soil varied from 0.18 to 0.42.[Conclution] The litter in soil could not be ignored, the mixed amount of litter accounted for more than 1/5 or even 2/3 of the total volume of litter. The total effective water-holding capacity of Caragana korshinskii was the largest, while under the influence of litter type and accumulation amount, the total holding capacity of Hippophae rhamnoides was the largest, with strong water conservation and soil and water conservation functions.
Key words:  soil litter  storage  water-holding capacity  loess hilly region  shrub