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民勤绿洲不同耕作方式农田表层土壤风蚀规律的风洞模拟研究
赵宇浩1, 王立1, 杨彩红1, 王军强2
1.甘肃农业大学 林学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070;2.甘肃省农业工程技术研究院, 甘肃 武威 733007
摘要:
[目的]比较分析不同耕作方式下农田表层土壤防风蚀机理和效果,为区域社会经济和生态环境建设提供科学依据。[方法]利用室内风洞及相关配套设备对甘肃民勤绿洲区的免耕、少耕、秋翻和深松农田表层土壤进行风蚀测试,计算风蚀速率及输沙率,研究其风沙运动规律,分析各种耕作农田表层土壤防风蚀情况。[结果]耕作措施对土壤风蚀速率的影响与风速大小相关,风速较小时,不同耕作方式对风速的影响差异不显著,而当风速大于14 m/s后不同耕作农田表层土壤风蚀速率开始出现较明显差异;少耕、秋翻、深松等耕作方式对农田表层土壤风蚀速率和输沙率的影响差异不明显;免耕耕作方式下农田表层土壤风蚀速率和输沙率最低,风速越高,差距越大;风速、耕作以及两者交互作用对农田表层土壤风蚀速率和输沙率有极显著影响。[结论]免耕耕作能有效抵抗农田表层土壤的风蚀,大幅度减少输沙率,表现出极佳的抗风蚀效果。
关键词:  耕作方式  农田表层土壤  风洞  风蚀  输沙率  民勤绿洲区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.032
分类号:S157
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目"荒漠绿洲区保护性多熟轮作的防风蚀效应"(41561062), "耕作方式下民勤绿洲区土壤有机碳的稳定性及风蚀效应" (31560170), "半干旱风蚀区耕作过程对土壤团聚体中碳的迁移释放的影响机制研究" (41867013);甘肃省自然科学基金项目(18JR3RA176);甘肃省高等学校基本科研项目(2017A-030);甘肃农业大学学科建设开放项目(GSAU-XKJS-2018-106)
Wind Tunnel Simulation of Wind Erosion in Surface Soil of Farmland Under Different Tillage Patterns in Minqin Oasis
Zhao Yuhao1, Wang Li1, Yang Caihong1, Wang Junqiang2
1.College of Forestry, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China;2.Gansu Academy of Agri-engineering Technology, Wuwei, Gansu 733007, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The mechanism and effects of wind erosion prevention of farmland surface soil under different tillage patterns were compared and analyzed, so as to provide scientific basis for regional socio-economic and ecological environment construction.[Methods] Wind erosion tests were carried out on no-tillage, less tillage, autumn ploughing and subsoiling farmland surface soil in Minqin Oasis, Gansu Province, using indoor wind tunnel and related supporting equipment, wind erosion rate and sand transport rate were calculated, wind erosion movement law was studied, and wind erosion prevention of farmland surface soil was analyzed.[Results] The results showed that the effects of tillage measures on soil wind erosion rate were related to wind speed. When wind speed was small, the effects of different tillage patterns on wind speed were not significant, but when wind speed was greater than 14 m/s, the wind erosion rates of surface soils began to show significant differences in different tillage fields; the effects of less tillage, autumn tillage, deep loosening and other tillage patterns on wind erosion rate and sand transport rate of surface soils were significant. The wind erosion rate and sediment transport rate of farmland surface soil were the lowest under no-tillage tillage, and the higher the wind speed, the greater the gap. Wind speed, tillage and their interaction had a significant impact on the wind erosion rate and sediment transport rate of farmland surface soil.[Conclusion] No-tillage could effectively resist the wind erosion of the surface soil of farmland, greatly reduce the sand transport rate, showing excellent anti-wind erosion effect.
Key words:  tillage patterns  topsoil of farmland  wind tunnel  wind erosion  sediment transport rate  Minqin oasis area