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南方红壤区水土流失综合治理模式研究——以江西省为例
莫明浩1,2, 谢颂华1,2, 聂小飞1,2, 胡松1
1.江西省水土保持科学研究院, 江西 南昌 330029;2.江西省土壤侵蚀与防治重点实验室, 江西 南昌 330029
摘要:
[目的]总结分析几十年来南方红壤区水土流失综合治理模式研究和实践,为水土保持实践中合理应用相适宜的模式提供参考。[方法]通过文献查阅和已有试验成果总结,以江西省为例,根据区域存在的水土流失问题,综合水土流失治理技术、治理工程实践和水土保持政策等三个方面,提出相应的治理模式。[结果]对于南方红壤区难于治理和危害较大的侵蚀地类,系统总结了坡耕地"一控二保"治理模式、坡地果园"一高双低"治理模式、崩岗"三型"治理模式、林下水土流失"两类"治理模式、强烈侵蚀"两荒"地治理模式等5套可行的技术模式,小流域综合治理和生态清洁小流域治理等2类工程实践模式,以及农户帮扶模式、大户治理模式、以奖代补模式、精品园区模式等4项政策引导模式。[结论]结合江西省长期以来效果良好的水土流失治理经验和做法,提出了新时代水土流失综合治理模式与内涵。治理模式的提出可为山水林田湖草系统治理提供参考。
关键词:  水土流失  综合治理模式  南方红壤区  江西省  崩岗
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.033
分类号:S157.2
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目"南方红壤低山丘陵区水土流失综合治理"(2017YFC0505406);江西水利科技项目(KT201718;201821ZDKT16)
Research on Patterns of Soil and Water Loss Comprehensive Harness in Red Soil Region of Southern China—A Case Study in Jiangxi Province
Mo Minghao1,2, Xie Songhua1,2, Nie Xiaofei1,2, Hu Song1
1.Jiangxi Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029, China;2.Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Prevention, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The practices and researches of soil and water loss comprehensive harness models in the red soil region of Southern China in the past decades were summarized and analyzed in order to provide references for appropriate application in soil and water conservation practice.[Methods] By reviewing related literatures and summarizing existed experimental results, taking Jiangxi Province as an example, according to the regional soil erosion problems, three aspects of corresponding harness patterns were proposed including soil erosion control technology, governance engineering practice and soil and water conservation policy.[Results] Patterns for those eroded lands which are difficult to be controlled or harmful to people in the red soil region, corresponding patterns were put forward from technical, practical and policy aspects. Technical patterns were summarized as following:the governance of "one control and two guarantees" on slope farmland; the "one high and two low" pattern on sloppy orchards land; the "three types" pattern on collapse erosion; the "two types" patterns eroded lands under forest; the "two types of strongly-eroded bare lands". Two practical patterns of comprehensive management of small watershed and small ecological-clean watershed were summarized. Policy-guided patterns were proposed, such as assistance for farmers, large-scale personal governance, reward replacing subsidy, boutique park construction.[Conclusion] Combining the long-term experiences and practices of soil erosion control in Jiangxi Province, the soil erosion control models and connotations in the new era were proposed. These models could provide references for the management of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grass system.
Key words:  soil and water loss  comprehensive harness model  red soil region of Southern China  Jiangxi Province  collapse mound