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贵州省乌江流域生态脆弱性评价及其空间变化特征
安芬, 李旭东, 程东亚
贵州师范大学 地理与环境科学学院, 贵州 贵阳 550025
摘要:
[目的]分析贵州省乌江流域生态脆弱性原因及空间变化特征,为该区生态环境建设与保护提供科学参考。[方法]通过构建评价指标体系,采用层次分析法(AHP)对影响流域生态脆弱性因子赋权重值,并利用GIS采用不同分类法对流域生态脆弱性进行综合评价。[结果]①分位数、相等间隔与自然间断点三种分类法对生态脆弱性等级划分影响不大,但面积比例存在明显差异,其极度脆弱与潜在脆弱流域面积比例最小;②流域生态脆弱程度以一般脆弱和中度脆弱为主,其面积占比在50%以上;③人类活动对流域生态脆弱性影响明显,贵阳、遵义市等大中城市周边多为极度脆弱区;④流域一般脆弱区空间分布较为分散,不利于流域生态环境保护治理。[结论]流域生态脆弱性等级大致从上游至下游逐渐降低,脆弱性空间分布特征明显。因地制宜地治理和保护流域生态脆弱区对减轻流域生态脆弱程度作用巨大。
关键词:  生态脆弱性  层次分析法  贵州省乌江流域
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.041
分类号:P964
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目"西南山地流域城市化与生态环境的耦合关系研究:以贵州乌江流域为例"(41261039)
Ecological Vulnerability Assessment and Spatial Variation Characteristics of Wujiang River Basin in Guizhou Province
An Fen, Li Xudong, Cheng Dongya
School of Geography and Environmental Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The ecological vulnerability and spatial variation characteristics of the Wujiang River basin in Guizhou Province were studied to provide a scientific reference for the ecological environment construction and protection in the area.[Methods] By constructing the evaluation index system, the AHP was used to weight the ecological vulnerability factors of the basin, and GIS was used to comprehensively evaluate the ecological vulnerability of the basin.[Results] ① The three classifications of quantile, equal interval and natural discontinuity had little effect on the classification of ecological vulnerability, but there were significant differences in area ratio, and the proportions of extremely fragile and potentially vulnerable watershed were the smallest. ② The ecological fragility of the basin is mainly fragile and moderately fragile, the areas of the two fragilities accounting for more than 50%. ③ Human activities have a significant impact on the ecological vulnerability of the basin. The surrounding areas of large and medium-sized cities such as Guiyang and Zunyi City are mostly and extremely vulnerable. ④ The spatial distribution of the generally fragile areas in the basin is relatively scattered, which is not conducive to the ecological environment protection of the basin.[Conclusion] The ecological vulnerability level of the basin is gradually reduced from the upstream to the downstream, and the spatial distribution characteristics of vulnerability are obvious. The protection of the ecologically fragile areas of the basin in terms of the local conditions has a great effect on reducing the ecological vulnerability of the basin.
Key words:  ecological vulnerability  analytic hierarchy process  Wujiang River basin in Guizhou Province