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秦岭山区不同闭矿年限尾矿库植被恢复调查
杨维鸽1, 赵培1, 党丽丽1, 叶媛媛2
1.商洛学院 城乡规划与建筑工程学院, 陕西 商洛 726000;2.商洛学院 化学工程与现代材料学院, 陕西 商洛 726000
摘要:
[目的]对秦岭山区不同闭矿年限尾矿库植被恢复情况进行调查研究,可为矿区植被恢复与重建提供理论依据。[方法]以秦岭山区4个不同闭矿年限(2,3,6和14 a)的金尾矿库为研究对象,在尾矿库的库顶和边坡设置样方,对样方内植被种类、高度、密度、盖度、优势度进行调查。[结果]闭矿6 a的尾矿库植被种类最多,其次是闭矿14,3和2 a的植被种类;闭矿14 a的尾矿库植被相对高度最高,其次是闭矿6,3和2 a的植被相对较高;闭矿6 a的尾矿库植被相对密度最高,其次是闭矿14,3和2 a的植被相对密度;闭矿14 a的尾矿库植被盖度最高,其次是闭矿6,3和2 a的植被盖度;尾矿库植被主要为菊科植物和禾本科植物,闭矿6 a的尾矿库植被优势度最高,其次是闭矿14,3和2 a的植被优势度。[结论]金尾矿库区自然恢复植被生长情况与闭矿年限有密切关系;人工覆土可以显著增加尾矿库区自然恢复植被种类的多样性。
关键词:  植被恢复  不同年限  尾矿库  调查  秦岭山区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.044
分类号:S719
基金项目:陕西教育厅科研计划项目"南水北调中线矿区土壤质量评价及修复研究"(19JK0254);商洛学院科学与技术研究项目(16SKY0290)。
Investigation on Vegetation Restoration After Different Closure Years in Tailing Ponds of Qinling Mining Areas
Yang Weige1, Zhao Pei1, Dang Lili1, Ye Yuanyuan2
1.College of Rural Planning and Architectural Engineering, Shangluo University, Shangluo, Shaanxi 726000, China;2.College of Chemical Engineering and Modern Materials, Shangluo University, Shangluo, Shaanxi 726000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The vegetation in the tailing ponds of Qinling mining areas was investigated in order to provide theoretical basis for vegetation restoration and reconstruction in mining areas.[Methods] Four sites of goal tailing ponds after closures of 2, 3, 6 and 14 years in Shangzhou District, Shaanxi Province were taken as the research objects. The top and slope of the tailing tailing ponds sites were investigated, mainly referring to 5 indexes of floral name, height, density, coverage, dominance.[Results] ① The relative height of tailing ponds after 6 years closure was the highest, followed by the ones after 14, 3 and 2 years closures. ② The relative density was the highest after 14 years closure, followed by that after 6, 3 and 2 years closures. ③ The highest vegetation coverage was observed in 6 years closed mine, followed by the ones of 14, 3 and 2 years closed mines. ④ The 14 years closed mine tailing pond had the highest vegetation coverage, followed by the 6 years, 3 years and 2 years closed mine tailing ponds. ⑤ Plants of the Compositae and Gramineae were the majority in the tailing ponds. The 6 years closed mine had the highest dominance, followed by ones of 14, 3 and 2 years closed mines.[Conclusion] The restoration of natural vegetation in the gold tailings reservoir area is closely related to the closure years. Artificial soil covering can significantly increase the diversity of natural restoration vegetation types.
Key words:  vegetation restoration  different years  tailing ponds  investigation  Qinling Mountains