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吉林省低山丘陵区地形因素对坡耕地侵蚀沟分布的影响
刘肃, 崔斌, 张瑜, 杨献坤
吉林省水土保持科学研究院 130033 吉林 长春
摘要:
[目的] 研究吉林省低山丘陵地貌内侵蚀沟与地形因素关系,从而发现地形因素对侵蚀沟发育及分布影响,为侵蚀沟综合治理与土地利用规划提供科学参考。[方法] 采用RTK测量系统对东辽县辽河源镇境内坡耕地中25条侵蚀沟进行了精准地面测量,基于1:10 000地形图,利用ArcGIS软件生成数字高程模型(digital elevation model,DEM),将侵蚀沟测量数据与DEM数据相叠加,获取侵蚀沟与地形要素各特征值,对各特征值进行相关性研究。[结果] ①研究区沟壑密度为5.99 km/km2,沟谷占坡地面积比例为5.12%。侵蚀沟主要分布于坡地中下部的耕地内,处于强烈侵蚀状态;②沟谷占坡地面积比例随坡度的变化呈现先增加后减少的趋势,在坡度为6°~9°范围内达到最大值;③沟壑密度与汇水区平均宽度呈幂函数关系;④沟壑密度随3°~6°坡地占总汇水面积比例的增加而减少,随6°~9°坡地占总汇水面积比例的增加而增加;⑤侵蚀沟平均宽度与汇水区平均宽度及形状系数均存在线性正相关关系,相关系数分别达0.57和0.84。[结论] 吉林省低山丘陵区侵蚀沟处强烈侵蚀状态,且有继续发展的趋势,6°~9°坡地是侵蚀沟分布的集中区域。
关键词:  侵蚀沟分布  沟壑密度  地形特征
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.01.006
分类号:S157.2;F301.21
基金项目:国家重点研发计划"东北黑土区侵蚀沟生态修复关键技术研发与集成示范"(2017YFC0504200),"东北黑土区坡面水土流失综合治理技术"(2018YFC0507002-05)
Effects of Topographical Factors on Erosion Gully Distribution of Farmland in Hilly Areas of Jilin Province
Liu Su, Cui Bin, Zhang Yu, Yang Xiankun
Jilin Academy of Soil and Water Conversation Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130033, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The relationship between erosion gullies and terrain factor was studied to clarify the effects of catchment topography on the development and distribution of erosion gullies in Jilin Province, and to provide a scientific basis for future erosion gully comprehensive management and land use planning.[Methods] The dimensions of 25 total gullies were measured using real time kinematic (RTK) positioning in Liaoheyuan Town, Dongliao County, Jilin Province. Digital elevation models (DEMs) of the gully catchments were generated based on 1:10 000 scale topographic maps using ArcGIS software, and the relationship between gullies and their topographic factors were obtained and analyzed.[Results] ① Gully density in the study area was 5.99 km/km2, and the proportion of valleys within the slope area was 5.12%. Erosion gullies were mainly distributed at the middle and base of the farmland, and the erosion intensity was severe; ② The proportion of gully areas to the slope area first presented an increasing trend and then a decreasing trend with the slope changes. The maximum value of proportion was reached in the slope ranged from 6 to 9 degrees; ③ Additionally, there was a power function relationship between gully density and the average width of the confluence area; ④ Gully density decreased with the proportion of gully area to the slope area increasing in the slope steepness from 3 to 6 degrees, whereas increased with the proportion of gully area to the slope area increasing in the slope steepness from 6 to 9 degrees; ⑤ There were linear positive correlations among the average width of gully/catchment and shape coefficients, and the correlation coefficients were 0.57 and 0.84, respectively.[Conclusion] The gully erosion intensity was severe and have a tendency of worsening in the hilly area of Jilin Province. Erosion gullies were mainly distributed in farmland areas and featured slope steepness of 6 to 9 degrees.
Key words:  erosion gully distribution  gully density  topographical features