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地表覆盖对大豆田土壤水热盐及产量的影响
董云云1, 王飞1,2,3, 韩剑桥1,2,3
1.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100;3.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
[目的] 研究不同覆盖措施对农田土壤水、热、盐及大豆产量的影响,为促进陕北安塞县山地梯田作物增产提供理论基础。[方法] 以大豆(中黄35)为试验材料,设置地膜覆盖(M)、谷子秸秆覆盖量5 000 kg/hm2(J5)与2 500 kg/hm2(J2)和传统耕作(CK)4个处理进行了系统对比试验。[结果] ①除20-40 cm土层的结荚期外,其他土层各时期M和J5处理的土壤贮水量均高于CK处理。另外在0-60 cm各土层中,出苗期M处理的土壤贮水量均高于J5处理;②在0-60 cm各土层中,全生育期M的土壤温度均高于CK处理,除结荚期外,J5处理的土壤温度均低于CK处理;③在一定范围内,M处理可提高土壤电导率,且在0-20 cm土层中,M和CK处理的电导率差异达到极显著水平(p<0.01);④M和J5处理的大豆产量分别显著高于CK处理46.73%(p<0.01)和34.61%(p<0.05);⑤在一定范围内,大豆产量与其全生育期的平均土壤贮水量、土壤温度和土壤电导率呈正相关关系。且相较于其他生长阶段,出苗期土壤物理条件对大豆产量的影响更为明显。[结论] 大豆产量与出苗期土壤贮水量和电导率极显著正相关,且地膜覆盖有利于提高出苗期土壤贮水量和电导率,可促进大豆增产。
关键词:  土壤贮水量  温度  电导率  大豆产量
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.01.007
分类号:S152
基金项目:国家重点研发计划专题计划"黄土高原水土流失治理与生态产业协同发展技术集成与模式"(2016YFC0501707);国家自然科学基金项目(41771558;41807067);陕西省水利水保科技项目"秦巴山地坡面近自然水土保持关键技术集成与示范"(2017sbkj-01)
Effects of Ground Surface Mulching on Water-Heat-Salt and Yield in Soybean Field
Dong Yunyun1, Wang Fei1,2,3, Han Jianqiao1,2,3
1.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Science, Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;3.University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
[Objective] We studied the effects of different mulching measures on the soil water, heat, salt, and soybean yield in the farmland, in order to provide a reference for promoting crop yield in the mountain terraces of Ansai County, Shaanxi Province.[Methods] The soybean(Zhonghuang 35) was used as the material where this experiment included four treatments:film mulching (M), mulching with 5 000 kg/hm2 straw (J5), mulching with 2 500 kg/hm2 straw (J2) and traditional tillage (CK).[Results] ① The soil water storage of M and J5 treatments during growth stages were higher than that of CK treatment, except for the podding stage in the 20-40 cm soil layer. Additionally, the soil water storage of M in the seeding stage was higher than the J5 treatment in each soil layer. ② In each 0-60 cm soil layer, the soil temperature of M was higher than the CK treatment, during the entire growth stage. The soil temperature of J5 was lower than the CK treatment, except during the podding stage. ③ M treatment can improve soil conductivity in a certain extent. The conductivity has a significant difference between M and CK treatments (p<0.01) in the 0-20 cm soil layer. ④ The soybean yield of M and J5 were significantly higher than that of the CK treatment, by 46.73% (p<0.01) and 34.61% (p<0.05), respectively. ⑤ There was a positive correlation between soybean yield and average soil water storage, soil temperature, and soil conductivity, during the entire growth period in a certain extent. Compared with other growth stages, the physical soil conditions had a significant effect on soybean yield during the seedling stage.[Conclusion] There is a significant positive correlation between soybean yield and soil water storage and conductivity, during the seedling stage. Therefore, film mulching can improve soil water storage and electrical conductivity during the seedling stage and promote soybean yield.
Key words:  soil water storage  temperature  conductivity  soybean yield