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自然及管理因素对伊犁河谷草地土壤水分动态的影响
普颖颖, 张文太, 李政, 黄国平
新疆农业大学 草业与环境科学学院, 新疆土壤与植物生态过程自治区级重点实验室, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052
摘要:
[目的] 研究自然及管理因素下草地土壤水分变化特征,为退化草地的生态恢复提供科学参考。[方法] 通过定点监测12个坡面小区,利用TDR水分测定仪及其探头测定灰钙土和棕红土两种退化草地坡面表层0-10 cm的土壤含水量,采用数据对比分析和统计分析相结合的方法,分析降雨、气温、坡位等自然因素和灌溉、土壤管理因素对坡面表层土壤水分动态变化的影响。[结果] 降雨和气温对表层土壤含水量的变化有显著性影响,不同降雨量对表层土壤含水量的影响不同;坡位对草地坡面表层土壤含水量没有显著性影响;红棕土持水性强,表层土壤含水量高于灰钙土;各管理措施中,水平沟处理能够在降雨后最大化的增大表层土壤含水量,枯草覆盖处理能显著减缓降雨后表层土壤含水量的下降速率。不同集雨补灌方式下,表层土壤含水量差异不明显,但集雨补灌措施可以在短时内提高表层土壤含水量。[结论] 表层土壤水分主要受降雨、管理等因素的控制,能够通过人为管理调控土壤水分,从而达到植被恢复的目的。
关键词:  降雨  气温  坡位  管理措施  表层土壤含水量
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.01.009
分类号:S157.2;S152.7
基金项目:国家自然科学基金地区项目"伊犁河谷天然草地土壤水库-小水窖联合集雨技术与应用"(41761059);新疆维吾尔自治区科学技术厅"自治区天山创新团队计划(土壤保育与节水减肥创新团队)"(2017D14009)
Effects of Natural and Management Factors on Soil Moisture Dynamics in Grassland of Ili River Valley
Pu Yingying, Zhang Wentai, Li Zheng, Huang Guoping
Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Soil and Plant Ecological Processes, College of Grassland and Environmental Sciences, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The variation characteristics of grassland soil moisture under natural and management factors were analyzed to provide a scientific reference for the ecological restoration of degraded grassland.[Methods] Twelve sloping area plots were monitored by fixed points. A time-domain reflector (TDR) and probe were used to determine the soil water content of the top 0-10 cm of two degraded grassland slopes with sierozem and brown-red soil. The data were compared and statistically analyzed. Combined methods were used to analyze the effects of natural factors such as rainfall, temperature, slope position, and irrigation, and soil management factors on hillslope soil moisture dynamics.[Results] Rainfall and temperature had significant effects on the surface soil water content, and varied rainfall intensity had different effects on the surface soil water content. The slope position has no significant effect on surface soil water content. Brown-red soil had a high water capacity, and the surface soil moisture content was higher than that of sierozem. Among the various management measures, the horizontal ditch treatment maximized the surface soil water content after rainfall, and the grass-cover treatment significantly reduced the decrease of surface soil water content after rainfall. There was no significant difference in surface soil water content under different rainwater harvesting methods, but supplementary irrigation with harvested rainfall can increase the surface soil water content in a short time.[Conclusion] The surface soil moisture is mainly controlled by factors such as rainfall and management. Therefore, soil moisture can be controlled through artificial cultivation management to achieve vegetation restoration.
Key words:  rainfall  temperature  slope position  management measures  surface soil water content