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内蒙古自治区达茂旗荒漠草原土壤水分对降水的响应
樊婷1, 张存厚1,2, 张德广3, 苏玥1
1.内蒙古自治区气象局 气象灾害监测预警与人工影响天气中心, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010051;2.内蒙古自治区气象局 生态与农业气象中心, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010051;3.内蒙古自治区气象科学研究所, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010051
摘要:
[目的] 研究不同降水模式土壤水分响应机制,为防治荒漠草原植被退化及土地荒漠化提供理论基础。[方法] 以内蒙古自治区达茂旗为例,基于自动土壤水分观测站2016-2018年逐时土壤水分、降水量资料,利用统计学等方法,研究荒漠草原降水对土壤水分的影响。[结果] 对于5.1~10.0,10.1~25.0 mm和大于25 mm降水事件,土壤水分响应深度分别为10,20 cm和50 cm,响应天数分别为6,7~9 d和10 d。5.1~15.0 mm和20.1~25.0 mm的降水,降水强度越大,土壤水分入渗深度越大;15.1~20.0 mm的降水,降水强度越大,土壤水分入渗深度越小。5.1~15.0,15.1~20.0,20.1~25.0 mm降水事件,0-10 cm土壤水分在降水强度较小时,土壤水分均在1 h后显著响应;在降水强度较大时,土壤水分分别在5,8 h及8 h后显著响应。[结论] 土壤水分对降水响应主要依赖于降水模式,包括降水量、降水强度、降水时间等。5.1~15.0 mm和20.1~25.0 mm降水量时,降水强度对土壤水分入渗深度具有正反馈作用,对入渗速率具有负反馈作用;15.1~20.0 mm降水量时,降水强度对土壤水分入渗深度和速率均具有负反馈作用。
关键词:  荒漠草原  垂直变化  土壤水分  降水变化  降水模式
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.01.011
分类号:S152.7;S157
基金项目:内蒙古自然科学基金项目"内蒙古草原土壤水分对降水过程的脉动响应"(2019MS04006);内蒙古自治区科技计划重点项目;国家重点研发计划课题(2018YFC1506606);中国气象局软科学研究项目(2019ZDIANXM02)
Response of Soil Moisture of Desert Steppes to Precipitation Patterns in Damao Banner, Inner Mongolia
Fan Ting1, Zhang Cunhou1,2, Zhang Deguang3, Su Yue1
1.Center of Meteorology Disaster Monitoring and Warning and Artificial Influence Weather, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Weather Bureau, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010051, China;2.Centre of Ecology and Agricultural Meteorology, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Weather Bureau, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010051, China;3.Inner Mongolia Meteorological Institute, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010051, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The response mechanism of soil moisture in moving dunes according to different precipitation patterns was discussed to provide a reference to prevent degraded vegetation and land desertification of grasslands on desert steppes.[Methods] With the desert steppe in Damao Banner of Inner Mongolia being used as an example ecosystem, based on the hourly soil moisture and precipitation of soil moisture at automatic observation stations from 2016 to 2018, statistical methods were used to study the effects of precipitation on soil moisture.[Results] When the precipitation intensity was lower, the soil moisture response depth was 10 cm, 20 cm, and 50 cm, respectively. The days of the moisture response was 6 d, 7-9 d, and 10 d accordingly when the precipitation amount was 5.1-10.0 mm, 10.1-25.0 mm and >25.0 mm. The higher precipitation intensity led to deeper infiltration when the precipitation amount was 5.1-15.0 mm or 20.1-25.0 mm. When the precipitation was 15.1-20.0 mm, higher precipitation intensity corresponded to shallower infiltration. When the precipitation intensity was lower, the soil moisture of the 0-10 cm soil layer responded significantly after one hour regarding the number of total precipitation-amounts of 5.1-10.0 mm, 15.1-20.0 mm, and 20.1-25.0 mm, respectively. However, when the precipitation intensity was higher, the soil moisture of the 0-10 cm soil layer responded significantly after 5 h, 8 h, and 8 h, respectively.[Conclusion] The response of soil moisture to precipitation is mainly dependent on the precipitation pattern, including the precipitation amount, intensity, and duration. The intensity had positive feedback on soil moisture infiltration depth and negative feedback on soil moisture infiltration velocity when the precipitation amount was 5.1-15.0 mm or 20.1-25.0 mm. However, the precipitation intensity had a negative feedback on soil moisture infiltration depth and velocity when the precipitation amount was 15.1-20.0 mm.
Key words:  desert steppe  vertical change  soil moisture  precipitation change  precipitation pattern