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2000-2015年鄂尔多斯高原生态承载力时空变化特征
王瑞杰1, 闫峰2, 张学良3
1.东北大学秦皇岛分校 资源与材料学院, 河北 秦皇岛 066004;2.中国林业科学研究院 荒漠化研究所, 北京 100091;3.青海省格尔木市园林管理处, 青海 格尔木 816000
摘要:
[目的] 分析2000-2015年鄂尔多斯高原生态足迹和生态承载力时空变化特征,为鄂尔多斯高原生态脆弱区经济和社会的可持续发展提供理论依据。[方法] 采用鄂尔多斯高原2000,2005,2010和2015年遥感数据,在土地利用和覆被变化转移矩阵分析的基础上,利用社会经济系统发展指数修正生态足迹模型研究生态承载力时空变化特征。[结果] ①2000-2015年鄂尔多斯高原土地覆被类型间转换以草地和未利用土地为主,2000-2010年生态足迹增速较快,2010年后增速相对放缓,生态足迹多年平均递增速率为15.93%;②鄂尔多斯市以准格尔旗总生态承载力最高,达拉特旗和杭锦旗次之,鄂托克前旗相对最低;人均生态承载力以杭锦旗相对最高,其次是鄂托克旗、准格尔旗,东胜区除2000年相对较高外,其他年份均较低。[结论] 2000-2005年鄂尔多斯高原处于生态盈余状态,2005-2015年由生态盈余转为生态赤字,生态承载力处于严重透支状态,生态环境的可持续发展面临着较大的挑战。
关键词:  生态承载力  生态足迹  社会经济系统发展指数  鄂尔多斯高原
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.01.014
分类号:K903;F205
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目"鄂尔多斯高原砒砂岩区生态综合治理技术"(2017YFC0504502)
Spatiotemporal Variations of Ecological Carrying Capacity in Ordos Plateau During 2000-2015
Wang Ruijie1, Yan Feng2, Zhang Xueliang3
1.School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao Branch, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004, China;2.Institute of Desertification Studies, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China;3.Golmud Landscape Manage Department, Golmud, Qinghai 816000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The ecological footprint and spatial and temporal characteristics of ecological carrying capacity during 2000-2015 in the Ordos Plateau were studied in order to provide a theoretical basis for the sustainable development of the local economy and society of an ecologically fragile area.[Methods] The Landsat images and social as well as economic statistical data in 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 were utilized. This data was based on the transfer matrix analysis of land use and cover change and was used to study the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of the ecological carrying capacity in the Ordos Plateau. This was achieved by employing the modified ecological footprint model with the development index of the social and economic system.[Results] ① Grassland and unused land were the primary land use types in the Ordos Plateau from 2000 to 2015. The ecological footprint was observed to increase rapidly from 2000 to 2010; subsequently, it relatively slowed down after 2010. From 2000 to 2015, the average annual ecological footprint showed a gradually increasing trend with an average speed of 15.93% per year. ② The total ecological carrying capacity in different locations was observed to be in the following decreasing order:Jungar Banner, Dalad, Hanggin Banner, and Otog Qian Banner. The per capita ecological carrying capacity of Hanggin Banner was the highest, followed by the Otog and Jungar Banner. Moreover, the values of the Dongsheng District were relatively the lowest for the period of 2000-2015, except 2000.[Conclusion] The Ordos Plateau demonstrated an ecological surplus status from 2000 to 2005. However, this status changed into an ecological deficit from 2005 to 2015. The ecological carrying capacity was seriously overdrawn in the Ordos Plateau, and the local sustainable development had to face increasingly significant challenges.
Key words:  ecological carrying capacity  ecological footprint  social-economical system development index  the Ordos Plateau