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基于农户视角的陕南坡地利用与治理措施调查研究
蓝郭华1, 韩剑桥1,2, 王飞1,2, 戈文艳1,2, 张鹏涛3, 董云云1
1.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.中国科学院 水利部 土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100;3.商洛市商州区水利局, 陕西 商州 726000
摘要:
[目的] 开展基于农户尺度经济视角的坡地利用现状和治理措施调查研究,了解陕南地区坡地弃耕原因,提高土地利用效率,完善坡耕地治理对策。[方法] 根据农户尺度经济行为特点设计调查问卷,通过典型村庄农户调查,对陕西省商州区梯田和经济作物坡地的利用现状、经济收益和农民的治理需求进行研究;采用二项Logistic回归模型和比例分析法,研究陕南地区土地利用存在的问题;通过对比坡改梯治理措施效果的优缺点,提出坡地治理建议。[结果] 调查共涉及6个村庄,93家农户。2018年农户家庭年均收入约为39 419元;农业生产收入主要来自经济作物,户年均约3 661元,仅占总收入的11.26%;坡耕地经济收入低,导致坡耕地和梯田弃耕现象严重,弃耕率高达15%;弃耕的原因主要有经济收入低,交通不便,农村劳动力不足,土地质量差产出低等因素。坡改梯是提高土地利用效率的重要措施,但仍存在易积水、土层薄等问题,对于梯田田坎类型,干砌石田坎在透水性和耐久性两方面综合性最好。[结论] 陕南梯田和坡耕地弃耕现象严重,弃耕原因比较明确;在新的历史时期,需要综合考虑人口、经济效益和环境效益等因素,制定兼具生态与经济效益的水土保持治理与土地利用方案。
关键词:  陕南地区  坡耕地  农户调查  农业收入  土地弃耕  治理措施
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.01.022
分类号:F323.4
基金项目:国家重点研发计划专题计划"黄土高原水土流失治理与生态产业协同发展技术集成与模式"(2016YFC0501707);国家自然科学基金项目"次降雨特征与植被变化对半干旱黄土区土壤水分补充的协同影响"(41771558),"黄土坡面细沟演化的有效侵蚀力解析及作用机制研究"(41807067);陕西省水利水保科技项目"秦巴山地坡面近自然水土保持关键技术集成与示范"(2017sbkj-01)
Survey on Utilization and Measures of Hillside Fields from Perspective of Farmers in Southern Shaanxi Province
Lan Guohua1, Han Jianqiao1,2, Wang Fei1,2, Ge Wenyan1,2, Zhang Pengtao3, Dong Yunyun1
1.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;3.Shangzhou District Water and Soil Conservation Station, Shangzhou, Shaanxi 726000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] A survey of hillside field utilization and management measures was conducted at household scale from economic perspective, in order to understand the causes of the hillside field abandonment. The aim was to improve land use efficiency and land use policies and countermeasures in Southern Shaanxi Province.[Methods] A targeted questionnaire was designed to survey the utilization of cash crop slopes and terraced fields, the economic profit, and the governance and economic needs of farmers in Shangzhou District, Shaanxi Province. The problems of land use in Southern Shaanxi Province were analyzed using the binomial Logistic regression model and the proportion analysis method. The slope management proposal was put forward by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different treatment measures and methods.[Results] There were 93 farmers from 6 villages involved in the survey. The average annual income of the farmers' households was 39 419 yuan in 2018. The agricultural industry income mainly came from the operation of cash crops, with an average annual income of 3 661 yuan, or only 11.26% of the total income. The economic income from sloping agricultural operations was low, leading to the abandonment of cultivated land and terraced fields; the proportion of abandoned farms increased with 15%. The main driving forces of abandonment include low economic return, inconvenient transportation, insufficient rural labor, poor land quality, and low output. Transforming hillside fields into terraced fields was a necessary measure to improve land use efficiency, but there were still problems such as water accumulation and a thin soil layer. The dry masonry terraced fields were the most advantageous in terms of permeability and durability.[Conclusion] Arable land abandonment on hillsides in Southern Shaanxi Province was a major issue. It is necessary to consider factors such as population, economic benefits, and environmental benefits to formulate policies for soil and water conservation and land use with ecological and economic benefits.
Key words:  Southern Shaanxi Province  hillside farmland  household survey  agricultural income  land abandonment farming  control measures