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关中地区农村典型涝池水体污染物特征及其水质现状调查与分析
苏媛1,2, 高小宝3, 张锐4, 周家辉4, 高照良1,5
1.中国科学院 教育部水土保持与生态环境研究中心, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.同济大学 海洋与地球科学学院, 上海 200092;4.西北农林科技大学 资源环境学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100;5.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
[目的] 探究影响涝池水体水环境质量的主要原因,以期能为涝池水体水环境保护和水质状况改善提供科学依据。[方法] 从涝池的功能、容量、面积和结构等方面出发,选取陕西省杨凌农业高新技术产业示范区8个具有典型代表性的涝池,对涝池水体pH值、溶解氧、化学需氧量、氨氮、总磷、总氮进行测定,同时对水质样本点各污染物指标进行参数检验,并应用单因子指数等方法对其综合评定。[结果] ①点源污染型涝池在不同采样点位置水体污染物浓度差异显著(p<0.05),各涝池总氮、总磷平均浓度范围分别为:4.70~78.13 mg/L,0.03~4.27 mg/L;氨氮平均浓度范围为0.36~39.18 mg/L;化学需氧量平均浓度范围为33.0~1 067.40 mg/L;溶解氧平均浓度范围为1.5~7.3 mg/L;pH值大小平均值范围为7.85~8.64;②大部分涝池水体污染严重,水质均为劣Ⅴ类,污染物主要以氮类污染物指标为主;③调查区涝池水质污染程度排序为:点源污染+有措施 < 面源污染+无措施 < 点源污染+无措施。[结论] 布设污水处理设施及池底防渗措施对于改善涝池水环境状态较为重要。此外辅以内源水体的相关修复及管护工作,效果将会更好。
关键词:  涝池  污染物特征  水质评价  关中地区农村
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.01.037
分类号:X131.2
基金项目:"十三五"国家重点研发计划"沟道径流消能抗冲技术研究"(2016YFC0501706-02)
Water Pollutant Characteristics and Water Quality Status of Typical Water Storage Ponds in Guanzhong Rural Area
Su Yuan1,2, Gao Xiaobao3, Zhang Rui4, Zhou Jiahui4, Gao Zhaoliang1,5
1.Institute of Soil & Water Conservation and Eco-environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.School of Ocean and Earth Science, Tongji University, Shanghai 20092, China;4.College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;5.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The main factors affecting the water environmental quality of water storage ponds were explored to provide a scientific basis for water environmental protection and water quality improvement of water storage ponds.[Methods] Eight typical water storage ponds in Yangling Agricultural Hi-tech Industries Demonstration Zone of Shaanxi Province were selected, taking into consideration the function, capacity, area, and structure of the ponds. Six water quality indicators were measured:pH value, ammonia nitrogen (AN), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). The multivariate statistical method and the single factor index were used to determine the variance of the pollutants in the water quality samples.[Results] ① The concentration of water pollutants in the water storage ponds was significantly different at different sampling points (p<0.05). The average TN and TP concentration in each pond was between 4.70~78.13 mg/L and 0.03~4.27 mg/L, respectively; The average NH4+-N concentration was between 0.36~39.18 mg/L; The average COD concentration was between 33.0~1 067.40 mg/L; The average DO concentration was between 1.5~7.3 mg/L; The average pH value was between 7.85~8.64; ② Most water storage ponds were seriously polluted. The water quality was inferior to the Ⅴ category, and the pollutants were mainly nitrogen-based. ③ The pollution levels of the water storage ponds in the survey area were:point source pollution + measures < non-point source pollution + no measures < point source pollution + no measures.[Conclusion] The installation of sewage treatment facilities and anti-seepage measures at the bottom of the pool were essential for improving the water environment of the water storage pond. A better result would achieved if the measures are supplemented with the repair and management of endogenous water bodies.
Key words:  water storage pond  pollutants  water quality evaluation  Guanzhong rural area