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塔里木河流域荒漠化的生态环境损害赔偿模式
颜华茹1,2, 王让会1,2, 宁虎森3, 彭擎1,2, 周露1,2, 李成1,2
1.南京信息工程大学 应用气象学院, 江苏 南京 210044;2.江苏省农业气象重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210044;3.新疆林业科学研究院 造林治沙研究所, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011
摘要:
[目的] 评估塔里木河干流区域风蚀损害程度,并针对不同荒漠化地区的风蚀量,进行相应的经济赔偿计算,以期为解译塔里木河生态损害的信息及流域生态的恢复和改善提供相应参考。[方法] 基于MOD13A1和MCD43A3数据,通过建立归一化植被指数(NDVI)和地表反照率(Albedo)的空间关系,构建荒漠化差值指数(DDI),并用土壤风蚀模型计算损害固沙量,再进行相应的风蚀损害赔偿计算。[结果] ①2010-2015年,研究区荒漠化程度有了一定的改善,但也存在退化现象。②2010-2015年,研究区整体荒漠化状况有所缓解,中高等级的荒漠化土地面积出现不同程度的下降,主要发生"强度荒漠化"向"中度荒漠化"的转移。③2015年不同荒漠化土地的损害固沙量分别为:极度荒漠化地区4.49×105 t/a;强度荒漠化地区1.33×105 t/a;中度荒漠化地区3.72×104 t/a;轻度荒漠化地区2.04×104 t/a。[结论] 2015年,塔里木干流生态损害总经济赔偿金额为3.23×106元人民币,符合当地经济发展水平。
关键词:  塔里木河流域  生态环境损害赔偿  荒漠化差值指数(DDI)  风蚀
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.01.038
分类号:X171.1
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划"古尔班通古特沙漠绿洲防护体系与农牧业综合开发试验示范研究","天山云水资源潜力评估与增雨雪技术开发应用"(2012BAD16B0305,2012BAC23B01);江苏省农业气象重点实验室开放基金(JKLAM1802);中国科学院先导专项课题(XDA20030101-02);国家自然科学基金(41801013)
Assessment and Compensation Mode of Ecological Environment Damage of Tarim River Basin
Yan Huaru1,2, Wang Ranghui1,2, Ning Husen3, Peng Qing1,2, Zhou Lu1,2, Li Cheng1,2
1.School of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210044, China;2.Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Agriculture Meteorology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210044, China;3.Institute of Afforestation and Sand Control, Xinjiang Academy of Forestry, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830063, China
Abstract:
[Objective] This paper evaluated the degree of wind erosion damage in the mainstream of the Tarim River basin and calculated the economic compensation for the wind erosion in different desertified areas in order to provide reference for interpreting the information of ecological damage of Tarim River basin, and the restoration and improvement of the basin ecology.[Methods] Based on the MOD13A1 and MCD43A3 data, the desertification difference index (DDI) was established by determining the spatial relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Albedo. The soil wind erosion model was used to calculate the amount of sand damage and further, the corresponding wind erosion damage compensation[Results] ① From 2010 to 2015, there was degradation but an improvement in the degree of desertification in the study area. ② During 2010-2015, the overall desertification status of the study area alleviated, and the area of desertified land in the middle and high grades declined to varying degrees i.e., "intense desertification" to "moderate desertification". ③ In 2015, the damage of different desertified land was 4.49×105 t/a for extreme desertification areas, 1.33×105 t/a for intense desertification areas, 3.72×104 t/a for moderate desertification areas, and 2.04×104 t/a for mild desertification areas.[Conclusion] In 2015, the total economic compensation amount was 3.23 million yuan i.e., in line with the local economic development level.
Key words:  Tarim River basin  compensation for ecological damage  desertification difference index (DDI)  wind erosion