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1901-2017年黄土高原地区气候干旱的时空变化
师玉锋1, 梁思琦2, 彭守璋2
1.西北农林科技大学 资源环境学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.西北农林科技大学 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
[目的] 分析1901-2017年和1981-2010年两个时间尺度黄土高原地区气候干旱的趋势变化和发生频率,为该区气候干旱应对策略的制定提供科学依据。[方法] 基于高空间分辨率长时间序列的气候数据,计算了黄土高原地区1901-2017年的标准化降水蒸散指数(SPEI),依次分析了该区气候干旱的趋势变化和发生频率。[结果] 1901-2017年,整个黄土高原的气候经历了"湿润-干旱-湿润-干旱"的交替过程,年SPEI变化趋势未达到显著性水平,且无显著突变年份。1981-2010年干旱呈显著加剧趋势的区域分布在黄土高原腹地以及中西部,面积比例为3.43%。1901-2017年干旱呈显著减轻趋势的区域主要分布在东、西部边缘区域,面积比例为1.05%;呈显著加剧趋势的区域分布在西北部,面积比例为4.16%。近30 a,黄土高原中部轻旱、重旱发生频率较高。在历史时期的两个时间段内,黄土高原西北部大部分地区重旱发生频率较低,未有极端干旱发生。[结论] 在黄土高原地区,随着干旱程度的不断加重,干旱频率的空间变异程度逐渐降低;不同等级干旱发生频率具有明显的空间变化特征。
关键词:  标准化降水蒸散指数SPEI  干旱趋势  干旱频率  黄土高原  Mann-Kendall趋势检验
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.01.041
分类号:P429
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目"基于动态植被模型的延河流域潜在植被分布及生境适宜度研究"(41601058);中国科学院西部之光项目"黄土高原地区潜在自然植被的模拟研究"(XAB2015B07)
Spatiotemporal Variation of Climate Drought in Loess Plateau Region During 1901-2017
Shi Yufeng1, Liang Siqi2, Peng Shouzhang2
1.College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The trend change and frequency of climate drought on the Loess Plateau during two periods of 1901-2017 and 1981-2010 were analyzed in order to provide a scientific basis for planning strategies coping with climatic drought in the region.[Methods] Based on a climate dataset with high spatial resolution and a long time-series, the annual standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) of the Loess Plateau region from 1901 to 2017 was calculated, and the change in trend and frequency of climate drought in the region were analyzed in turn.[Results] Over the entire Loess Plateau, the climate exhibited four alternating stages:"humid-arid-humid-arid" during 1901-2017. During this time, the variation trend of the annual SPEI was not significant, and there was no significant mutation. During 1981-2010, an area with a significantly increasing trend in drought (based on the SPEI) was detected in the hinterland and midwestern part of the Loess Plateau, accounting for 3.43% of the total area. During 1901-2017, an area with a significantly decreasing trend in drought was found distributed in the eastern and western marginal region, with an area ratio of 1.05%. Moreover, an area showing a trend of significant increase in drought was found in the northwest, with an area ratio of 4.16%. In the most recent 30 years, light and heavy droughts frequently occurred in the central region of the Loess Plateau. In 1981-2010 and 1901-2017, the occurrence frequency of severe drought in most of the northwestern region was lower than in other areas, and no extreme drought occurred.[Conclusion] With the increase in drought severity, the spatial variability of drought frequency gradually decreased on the Loess Plateau. Furthermore, drought frequency of different grades in the Loess Plateau region has obvious spatial variation characteristics.
Key words:  standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI)  drought trend  drought frequency  the Loess Plateau  Mann-Kendall trend test