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不同改良剂对沙化土壤理化性质及沙米干物质量的影响
吕涛1,2, 魏特1,2, 张立欣1,2, 袁勤1,2, 叶丽娜1,2, 刘江1,2
1.亿利资源集团有限公司, 内蒙古 鄂尔多斯 017418;2.内蒙古库布其沙漠技术研究院, 内蒙古 鄂尔多斯 017418
摘要:
[目的] 研究施加不同改良剂的沙化土壤理化性质及沙米生长状况,为沙化土地治理及生态环境修复提供科学指导。[方法] 以有机肥、亚麻籽粕、保水材料(聚丙烯酸钾)、腐殖酸等材料在库布齐沙漠西北缘典型沙化土地开展改良试验,测定施用不同改良剂的沙化土壤理化性质、微生物数量及酶活性、沙米干物质量。[结果] ①改良剂对降低沙化土壤容重和入渗速率,提高土壤总孔隙度和田间持水量效果表现为:保水剂(BSJ) > 保水保肥剂(BSBFJ) > 粘合剂(NHJ),并且在0-30 cm土层内,随着土层深度增加,3者调节土壤物理性质的作用减弱;②各种改良剂对降低土壤pH值,提高土壤速效氮和有机质的效果不明显。BSJ对降低土壤pH值,提高土壤速效氮、速效磷含量效果最好,BSBFJ对提高土壤速效钾和有机质含量效果最明显;③3种改良剂可以显著提高沙米的总干物质量,提高的程度表现为:BSBFJ > BSJ > NHJ;④施用各改良剂极大程度地提高了沙化土壤中微生物数量及酶活性,NHJ对提高土壤细菌、放线菌数量、脲酶活性效果最佳,BSBFJ对提高土壤真菌数量、蔗糖酶活性、磷酸酶活性最佳。[结论] 不同改良材料的配合施用对沙化土壤理化性质及沙米的生长有着不同程度的改善作用。综合考虑各改良材料的改良效果,在该地区的沙化土地改良工作中BSBFJ为首选材料。
关键词:  土壤改良剂  沙米  土壤理化性状  土壤微生物
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.02.003
分类号:156.99;157.3
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目"砒砂岩资源利用及生态产业技术与试验示范"(2017YFC0504506)
Effects of Different Soil Amendments on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties and Dry Matter of Agriophyllum Squarrosum in Desertification Land
Lü Tao1,2, Wei Te1,2, Zhang Lixin1,2, Yuan Qin1,2, Ye Lina1,2, Liu Jiang1,2
1.Elion Resources Group, Ordos, Inner Mongolia 017418, China;2.Inner Mongolia Kubuqi Desert Technology Research Institute, Ordos, Inner Mongolia 017418, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The physical and chemical properties of sandy soil the growth status of Agriophyllum squarrosum with different amendments were studied, in order to provide scientific guidance for the follow-up work of desertification land management and the restoration of ecological environment.[Methods] Organic fertilizer, flaxseed meal, water-retaining material (potassium polyacrylate), humic acid and other materials were used to improve sandy soils in Northwest Margin of Kubuqi Desert. The effects of different soil amendments on the soil physicochemical properties, microorganism quantity, enzyme activities and dry matter weight of Agriophyllum squarrosum were analyzed.[Results] ① The sequence of the effect of amendments on reducing bulk density and infiltration rate of desertified soils, and increasing total soil porosity and soil field capacity were:water retaining agent (BSJ) > water and fertilizer retaining agent (BSBFJ) > adhesive (NHJ). As the soil layer depth increases within the layer of 0-30 cm, effects of the three treatments on regulating soil physical properties weakened gradually. ② The effects of amendments on reducing soil pH value and increasing soil available nitrogen and organic matter were not obvious. BSJ had the best effect on reducing soil pH value, increasing soil available nitrogen and available phosphorus, and BSBFJ was the most effective in improving soil available potassium and organic matter content. ③ Three amendments improved the dry matter weight of Agriophyllum squarrosum significantly, and the specific performance was BSBFJ > BSJ > NHJ. ④ The microorganism quantity and enzyme activity in desertified soil were greatly improved by the application of amendments. NHJ had the best effect on increasing the number of soil bacteria, actinomycetes and urease activity, while BSBFJ had the best effect on increasing the number of soil fungi, invertase activity and phosphatase activity.[Conclusion] Different types of soil amelioration materials can improve the physiochemical properties of desertified land and the growth of Agriophyllum squarrosum at vary degrees. Considering the improving effect of three soil amelioration materials, BSBFJ could be as preferred materials for improving desertification soil in the area.
Key words:  soil amendment  Agriophyllum squarrosum  soil physicochemical properties  soil microorganism