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不同有机材料覆盖对土壤保水效果的影响
车飞伟,李素艳,孙向阳,曲炳鹏,贠炳辉,王心语,熊凯毅
1.北京林业大学 林学院, 北京 100083;2.天津绿茵景观生态建设股份有限公司, 天津 300384;3.西华师范大学 环境科学与工程学院, 四川 南充 637009
摘要:
[目的] 研究不同有机材料覆盖对土壤水分蒸发量、土壤含水量的影响,并筛选出保水效果最佳的材料。[方法] 以木片、树皮及经过堆腐的园林废弃物为研究对象,进行模拟蒸发及桶装控制试验。[结果] 不同粒径的园林废弃物覆盖均能降低土壤水分日蒸发量,日蒸发量从大到小依次为CK,3~5 cm粒径(M3)、0~1 cm粒径(M1)、1~3 cm粒径(M2)。在连续蒸发14 d后,M2,M1,M3和CK的土壤水分累积蒸发量分别为193.0,269.5,304.0和1 037.0 g,与CK相比,分别减少了81.4%,74.0%,70.7%;不同有机材料覆盖均能提高土壤含水量。除了雨季之外,不同土层土壤含水量从高到低依次表现为:木片覆盖(M4) > 树皮覆盖(M5) > 1~3 cm粒径园林废弃物覆盖(M2) > CK。土壤含水量的年变化整体呈现出双峰趋势,一年中4-5月含水量较低,6-8月含水量较高,不同土层土壤含水量的年变化趋势基本一致。M4,M5,M2和CK的0-40 cm土层土壤年平均含水量分别为32.9%,30.3%,27.4%,26.8%。[结论] 木片为保水效果最好的有机材料,其次是树皮和园林废弃物。
关键词:  有机材料覆盖  城市绿地  土壤蒸发量  土壤含水量
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.02.026
分类号:S714.2
基金项目:北京市科技计划项目"北京市绿地林地土壤质量提升关键技术研究与示范"(Z161100001116061)
Effects of Different Organic Materials Mulching on Moisture Holding Capacity of Soil
Che Feiwei1, Li Suyan1, Sun Xiangyang1, Qu Bingpeng1,2,3,4, Yun Binghui1, Wang Xinyu1, Xiong Kaiyi1
1.College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China;2.Tianjin Lü3.yin Landscape and Ecology Construction Co. Ltd, Tianjin 300384, China;4.College of Environmental Science and Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009, China
Abstract:
[Objective] Mulching effects of different organic materials on evaporation and soil moisture content were studied to identify the best material for moisture retention.[Methods] The simulated evaporation analyses were conducted with garden waste in various particle sizes (M1:0~1 cm, M2:1~3 cm, M3:3~5 cm). In addition the barrel control experiments were carried out with M2, wood chips (M4), and bark (M5).[Results] Garden waste in various particle sizes could reduce daily evaporation of soil moisture. After 14 days of continuous evaporation, the cumulative evaporation capacity of M2 (1~3 cm in size), M1 (0~1 cm), M3 (3~5 cm) and CK (control) were 193.0, 269.5, 304.0 and 1 037.0 g, respectively, which were 81.4%, 74.0% and 70.7% lower than those of CK. The soil moisture content of different layers were increased by covering with different organic materials, except for the rainy season, which were wood chips (M4), bark (M5) and garden waste (M2) from high to low. The annual change of soil moisture content under various mulching layers showed a similar bimodal trend, with a low soil moisture content in the period from April to May while a high soil moisture content in the period from June to August. The annual average of soil moisture content within the 0-40 cm soil layer of M4, M5, M2 and CK were 32.9%, 30.3%, 27.4%, and 26.8%, respectively.[Conclusion] Wood chips are the best materials for moisture conservation, followed by bark and garden waste.
Key words:  organic materials mulching  urban green space  soil moisture evaporation  soil moisture content