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不同条件下泥石流堰塞坝的溃决过程
曹春然1,2, 陈华勇1,3, Robin Neupane1,2, 李慧斌1,2, 阮合春1,2
1.中国科学院 山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室/中国科学院水利部 成都山地灾害与环境研究所, 四川 成都 610041;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100000;3.中国科学院 青藏高原地球科学卓越创新中心, 北京 100101
摘要:
[目的] 对不同因素作用下的泥石流堰塞坝溃决过程进行试验研究,为泥石流堰塞坝的灾害防治和灾后重建等提供科学支撑。[方法] 开展了不同来水流量、坝体形态、黏粒含量、坝高和初始含水量条件下的溃决试验。将漫顶溃决过程分为4个阶段:坡面侵蚀过程、陡坎侵蚀过程、下切和侧向侵蚀过程和衰退过程。此外,分析了泥石流堰塞坝坝体破坏机理,并给出下游坡面泥沙起动临界条件的计算式。[结果] 溃决流量与来水流量之间呈非线性正相关;溃决洪峰流量随着背水坡坡度增加而增加;溃决洪峰流量随着坝高的增加而迅速增加,泥石流堰塞坝坝体黏粒含量与溃决洪峰流量之间整体呈现负相关;溃决洪峰流量随着土体初始含水量的增加而缓慢降低,但变化的范围不大。[结论] 在泥石流堰塞坝溃决的不同因素中,坝高和黏粒含量影响最大,来水流量次之,背水坡度和初始含水量影响最小。
关键词:  泥石流  堰塞坝  洪峰流量  溃决机理  起动临界条件
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.03.005
分类号:P642.23
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“气候变化条件下高山区特大泥石流灾害链动力过程与风险分析”(41520104002),“冰滑坡涌浪及其作用下的冰湖溃决机理研究”(41771045);中国科学院前沿科学重点研究项目(QYZDY-SSW-DQC006);中科院山地所‘一三五’方向性项目(SDS-135-1701);中国铁路总公司科技研究开发计划课题(2017G008-F);中科院创新促进会(2017425)
Process of Debris Flow Dam Break Under Different Conditons
Cao Chunran1,2, Chen Huayong1,3, Robin Neupane1,2, Li Huibin1,2, Ruan Hechun1,2
1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Surface Processes, CAS/Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100000, China;3.CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Abstract:
[Objective] To provide scientific support for the disaster prevention and reconstruction of debris flow dams, an experimental study on the process of debris flow dam break under different factors was conducted.[Methods] Dam failure tests were carried out under different inflows, dam shapes, clay contents, dam heights, and initial water contents. The breaking process was divided into four stages:slope surface erosion process, scarp erosion process, lateral erosion process, and decline. The failure mechanism of the debris flow dam was analyzed, and the formula for calculating the critical opening condition for the downstream slope sediment was obtained.[Results] There was a nonlinear positive correlation between the outburst discharge and the inflow water flow. The peak discharge of the outburst increased with the slope degree of the backwater slope. The outburst peak discharge increased rapidly with the increase in the height of the dam, and there was a negative correlation between the clay content and the outburst flow. The peak discharge of the outburst flow decreased slowly with the increase in the initial water content of the soil, but the range of variation was not large.[Conclusion] Among the different factors of debris flow dam break, dam height and clay content have the greatest influence, followed by incoming water flow, backwater slope and initial water content have the least influence.
Key words:  debris flow  barrier dam  peak discharge  outburst mechanism  critical opening condition