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黄土区梯化坡地不同土地利用方式对土壤理化性质的影响
李泽霞, 董彦丽, 马涛
甘肃省水土保持科学研究所, 甘肃 兰州 730020
摘要:
[目的] 研究覆膜作物、牧草地和撂荒地模式下梯化坡地不同土地利用方式对土壤理化性质的影响,为黄土区梯化坡地优化农业生产管理提供科学依据。[方法] 以黄土区甘肃省陇西县梯化坡地为研究对象,选择5种土地利用方式(玉米地、苜蓿地、撂荒地2 a,撂荒地4 a和荒草地)按不同坡位(挖方段、中间段、填方段)进行土壤取样,对0—40 cm土层土壤理化性质进行研究。[结果] 在5种土地利用方式下,土壤含水量、容重均随土层深度增加而增大,其中玉米地土壤含水量最高,容重最小;土壤机械组成均表现为:细砂粒 > 黏粒 > 粉粒 > 粗砂粒;土壤含水量、容重、黏粒和粉粒均表现为:挖方段 > 中间段 > 填方段,而粗砂粒、细砂粒、有机碳、速效钾和水解性氮则呈现相反的趋势。土壤pH值均值变化为苜蓿地最大,撂荒地最小,且方差分析差异不显著(p>0.05)。土壤有机碳、速效钾和有效磷均值均表现为玉米地最大,水解性氮均值表现为:苜蓿地 > 玉米地 > 撂荒地2 a > 荒草地 > 撂荒地4 a。[结论] 覆膜玉米地表现出对土壤含水量、容重及养分的促进作用均优于其他土地利用方式,且填方段的土壤更加肥沃,耕作中应注重加强对挖方段的施肥。
关键词:  黄土区  梯化坡地  土地利用方式  土壤性质
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.03.007
分类号:S152.4+5
基金项目:甘肃省自然科学基金项目“黄土区梯化坡地轮作休耕制度土壤碳循环研究”(18JR3RA026);甘肃省水利重点科研计划项目(甘水科外[2018]70号、甘水科外发[2019]8号、甘水建管发[2020]46号)
Effects of Land Use Types on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Terraced Sloping Land of Loess Areas
Li Zexia, Dong Yanli, Ma Tao
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation of Gansu, Lanzhou, Gansu 730020, China
Abstract:
[Objective] Under the patterns of mulched crops, pasture, and abandoned lands, the effects of land use type on the physical and chemical properties of soil in terraced sloping land were studied to provide support for the optimization of agricultural production management in the terraced sloping land of loess areas.[Methods] Regions of terraced sloping land in the loess area of Longxi County were selected as study sites. Soil sampling was performed for five different land use types:a cornfield, an alfalfa field, land abandoned land for two years, land abandoned for four years, and barren grassland. The sampling was undertaken according to the different slope positions (cutting section, middle section, and filling section), and the physical and chemical properties of the 0-40 cm soil layer were analyzed.[Results] Under different types of land use, the soil moisture content and bulk density increased with increased depth of the soil layer, whereby the cornfield soil had the highest moisture content and the lowest bulk density. The mechanical compositions of the soils ranked as:fine sand > clay > powder > coarse sand. The soil moisture content, bulk density, clay fraction, and powder fraction all showed a trend with slope position as:cutting section > middle section > filling section, while the coarse sand fraction, fine sand fraction, organic carbon content, available potassium content, and hydrolysable nitrogen content, all showed a contrasting trend. The average change of the soil pH value was largest in the alfalfa field and smallest in the abandoned land; there was no significant difference in the analysis of variance (p>0.05). The average changes of soil organic carbon, available potassium content, and available phosphorus content were largest in the cornfield, and the soil hydrolysable nitrogen content was ranked as follows:alfalfa field > corn field > land abandoned for two years > barren grassland > land abandoned for four years.[Conclusion] The cornfield of plastic mulch exhibited better promotional effects for the soil moisture content, bulk density, and nutrient content than the other land use types, and the soil in the filling section was more fertile. During farming, the fertilization of the cutting section should be strengthened.
Key words:  loess area  terraced sloping land  land use types  soil properties