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不同植被格局对梁峁坡-沟坡的侵蚀动力作用机制
于国强1, 贾莲莲2, 朱冰冰3, 张霞4
1.中国地质调查局干旱-半干旱区地下水与生态重点实验室, 陕西 西安 710054;2.黄河水利委员会黄河上中游管理局, 陕西 西安 710021;3.陕西师范大学 地理科学与旅游学院, 陕西 西安 710061;4.省部共建西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室(西安理工大学), 陕西 西安 710048
摘要:
[目的] 探究不同植被格局对梁峁坡—沟坡的侵蚀动力作用机制,为进一步揭示草地坡面侵蚀规律和植被减蚀效应研究提供科学依据。[方法] 以梁峁坡—沟坡为研究对象,采用室内降雨模拟降雨和三维激光扫描技术,分析不同植被格局对梁峁坡—沟坡侵蚀动力作用机制。[结果] 径流流速和含沙量共同影响着坡面侵蚀动力过程,径流流速是主要影响因素。坡面的侵蚀产沙来源主要位于沟坡内,不同植被格局下梁峁坡与沟坡产沙比例的不同,反映了植被调控侵蚀的范围和强度的不同。草带位于梁峁坡中下部时,不但能够有效降低梁峁坡的侵蚀程度,而且能够有效抑制和减缓沟坡内的径流流速,大幅度降低梁峁坡下部和沟坡内的侵蚀程度。[结论] 不同植被格局可以通过影响径流流速和含沙量来调控梁峁坡—沟坡侵蚀动力。
关键词:  植被格局  梁峁坡—沟坡  径流流速  侵蚀量
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.04.002
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:陕西省创新能力支撑计划项目“旱区地下水文过程与表生生态重点科技创新团队”(2019TD-040);中国地质调查局项目(DD20190504);陕西省自然科学基础研究计划项目(2015JQ4099);国家自然科学基金项目(51779204;41601285)
Regulation Mechanism of Vegetation Pattern on Erosion Dynamics in Hill-gully Slopes
Yu Guoqiang1, Jia Lianlian2, Zhu Bingbing3, Zhang Xia4
1.Key Laboratory on Groundwater and Ecology in Arid and Semiarid Regions, China Geological Survey, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710054, China;2.Upper and Middle Yellow River Bureau, Yellow River Conservancy Commission of the Ministry of Water Resources, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710021, China;3.School of Geography and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China;4.State Key Laboratory of Eco-hydraulics in Northwest Arid Region of China(Xi'an University of Technology), Xi'an, Shaanxi 710048, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The regulation mechanism of different vegetation patterns on erosion dynamics in hill-gully slope was studied in order to provide a scientific basis for further revealing the law of erosion in grassland slope and the effects of vegetation on erosion reduction. [Methods] The regulation mechanism of different vegetation patterns on the erosion dynamics on a hill-gully slope was analyzed with rainfall simulation and three-dimensional laser scanning technology on a hill-gully slope model. [Results] Both runoff velocity and sediment concentration affected the dynamic process of slope erosion, and runoff velocity was the dominant factor. The gully-slope area was the main erosional sediment source. The scope and degree of vegetation regulation impacts with different patterns could be reflected by sediment yield ratios of hillslope to gully-slope. The grass strip located at the middle and lower part of the hillslope not only reduced the erosion degree effectively on the hillslope, but also retarded runoff velocity on the gully-slope greatly which would alleviate the erosion at the lower part of hillslope and gully slope. [Conclusion] Different vegetation patterns regulate the erosion dynamics in hill-gully slope by affecting the runoff velocity and sediment concentration.
Key words:  vegetation pattern  hill-gully slope  runoff velocity  sediment yield