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扇形地的类型辨析及区分方法探讨
陈同德1, 焦菊英1,2, 林红1, 王颢霖1, 赵春敬1, 章志鑫1
1.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
[目的] 总结国内外对扇形地的研究成果及存在的问题,为扇形地合理分类和地貌实体的区分提供方法和建议。[方法] 通过文献梳理,总结了各类扇形地的概念、命名、地貌、地表环境和利用方式等方面的不同特征,并对各类型扇形地进行辨析。[结果] 现有研究对扇形地的概念和类型尚未形成共识,且部分研究对冲积扇、洪积扇和泥石流堆积扇的概念和命名有混淆。冲积扇和洪积扇地貌实体之间的主要区别为:冲积扇扇面一般具有常流水,且流道多固定,但洪积扇则与此相反。区分各类扇形地地貌实体主要包括地理分布、地貌特征、遥感影像和实地勘察等方法。[结论] 明确扇形地的类型、地表环境特征和区域背景环境,将有利于扇形地合理开发、利用和保护。
关键词:  扇形地  冲积扇  洪积扇  地表环境  利用特征
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.04.026
分类号:S157
基金项目:中国科学院战略性先导科技专项“泛第三极环境变化与绿色丝绸之路建设”子课题“土壤侵蚀定量评价与分区防控对策”(XDA20040202);第二次青藏高原综合考察研究(2019QZKK060300)
Discrimination on Types of Fan-shaped Land and Its Distinguishing Methods
Chen Tongde1, Jiao Juying1,2, Lin Hong1, Wang Haolin1, Zhao Chunjing1, Zhang Zhixin1
1.State Key Laboratory of Erosion and Dryland Agriculture on the Loess Plateaus, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The researches and existing problems on fan-shaped lands were reviewed in order to provide methods and suggestions for reasonable classification of fan-shaped lands and differentiation of geomorphic entities. [Methods] Through literature review, the concept, naming, geomorphology, surface environment and utilization characteristics of different fan-shaped lands were summarized, and their differences were analyzed. [Results] The existing researches have not formed a consistent concept and types for different fan-shaped lands. Some studies have confused the concept and naming of pluvial fan, diluvial fan and debris flow fan. The main difference between fluvial fan and the diluvial fan is that the fluvial fan generally has constant flow, and the flow channel is mostly fixed, but the diluvial fan is opposite. The methods for judging different fan-shaped landforms mainly include geographic distribution, landform feature, remote sensing image and field investigation. [Conclusion] Clarifying the type, surface environmental characteristics and regional background environment of fan-shaped lands would be beneficial to rational development, utilization and protection of fan-shaped lands.
Key words:  fan-shaped land  fluvial fan  diluvial fan  surface environment  utilization characteristic