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2005-2018年澜沧江下游流域景观生态安全时空变化及其驱动因素
和春兰1, 普军伟2, 沈金祥1
1.云南国土资源职业学院, 云南 昆明 652501;2.云南大学 地球科学学院, 云南 昆明 650500
摘要:
[目的] 分析澜沧江下游流域景观生态安全时空变化规律和驱动机制,为该流域及流经国家的人与自然协调可持续发展提供科学依据。[方法] 以2005,2010,2015和2018年4期遥感影像为数据源,通过景观指数和GIS空间分析方法评价流域景观生态安全,采用双变量空间自相关方法明确城市、道路、河流、高程、坡度、气温和降水等因素对景观生态安全的驱动作用。[结果] ①2005—2018年,澜沧江下游流域的整体景观生态安全度呈先升后降的变化特征。其中,北部和中西部景观生态安全较差,东部、南部和东南部较好,但也有恶化趋势;②各景观类型中,景观生态安全度从大到小为:水域 > 林地 > 草地 > 耕地 > 建设用地 > 裸地。其中,林地和草地的景观生态安全度存在波动,耕地和水域的景观生态安全度一直上升,而建设用地和裸地的景观生态安全度持续下降;③距城市距离、距道路距离、气温和降水等社会和气象因素对景观生态安全时空变化的驱动作用最强,距河流距离也对景观生态安全的时空变化有一定解释作用,而高程和坡度等地形因素并非澜沧江下游流域景观生态安全时空变化的主要驱动因素。[结论] 应尽量降低由人类活动引起的生态环境负荷,积极发挥气象因素对生态安全的正向效应,促进澜沧江下游流域的人与自然协调可持续发展。
关键词:  景观生态安全  时空变化  驱动因素  澜沧江下游流域
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.04.030
分类号:P901;X82
基金项目:云南省地矿局科技创新项目“基于CASA模型的澜沧江下游流域植被NPP时空变化研究”(2017JJ05);云南省教育厅科学研究基金项目“基于高频次遥感的滇池草海片区凤眼莲时空演变与邻近水域叶绿素响应研究”(2019J0481)
Spatial-temporal Changes and Driving Mechanisms of Landscape Ecological Security in Lower Reaches of Lancang River During 2005-2018
He Chunlan1, Pu Junwei2, Shen Jinxiang1
1.Yunnan Land and Resources Vocational College, Kunming, Yunnan 652501, China;2.School of Earth Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The spatial-temporal changes and the driving mechanisms of landscape ecological security (LES) in the lower reaches of the Lancang River were analyzed to provide scientific basis for the coordinate and sustainable development of human and nature in the basin and the downstream countries. [Methods] By using the remote sensing images of 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2018, this study assessed the LES of the lower reaches of Lancang River by landscape index and GIS technology. The bivariate spatial autocorrelation was used to simulate the driving mechanism of regional factors (including cities, roads, rivers, elevation, slope, temperature and precipitation) on spatial-temporal changes of LES. [Results] ① From 2005 to 2018, the LES increased firstly and then decreased in the lower reaches of Lancang River. The LES in the northern and mid-west regions was relatively poor, which in the eastern, southern, and southeastern regions was better but also showed a tendency of deterioration. ② The LES of various landscape types was as: waters > forestland > grassland > cultivated land > construction land > bare land. Among them, the LES of forestland and grassland fluctuated, the LES of the cultivated land and waters increased, while the LES of construction land and bare land decreased. ③ Social and meteorological factors, such as distance form cities, distance from roads, temperature and precipitation, showed the strongest influence on spatial-temporal changes of the LES. And the distance from rivers also explained the spatial-temporal change of the LES at certain extent. The topographical factors such as elevation and slope showed no influence on spatial-temporal changes of LES in the lower reaches of Lancang River. [Conclusion] In the future, the eco-environmental load caused by human activities should be reduced as much as possible, and the positive effects of meteorological factors on ecological security should be brought into full play, to promote the coordinate and sustainable development of human and nature in the lower reaches of Lancang River.
Key words:  landscape ecological security  spatial-temporal change  driving factors  the lower reaches of Lancang River