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黄土旱塬区新增耕地质量等别及粮食产能影响因素
周欣花
作者单位
周欣花 甘肃省自然资源规划研究院, 甘肃 兰州 733000 
摘要:
[目的] 对黄土旱塬区新增耕地质量等别及粮食产能的影响因素进行分析,为实现黄土旱塬区耕地保护和提高粮食安全保障提供理论依据。[方法] 以陇中黄土旱塬区甘肃省白银市景泰县2015—2017年3个耕地占补平衡项目为例,以新增耕地的7种农用地分等因素为依据,对新增耕地耕地的质量等别和粮食产能进行计算,同时对新增耕地的土壤理化特性进行分析,并利用计量经济学Logistic回归模型,从构成新增耕地质量的主要因素入手分析各因素对粮食产能的影响。[结果] 景泰县占补平衡项目的实施,使新增耕地等别提高1~2个等别。粮食产能与新增耕地平均等别呈显著的正相关关系,水浇地以占总新增耕地91.84%的面积,创造了比例为93.36%的总粮食产能。新增耕地年限3 a时,土壤结构破坏率较1 a时降低了2.05%,土壤抗侵蚀能力得到显著提高,土壤全氮、有机质及速效钾分别较1 a时提高了10.67%,15.39%以及13.62%。耕种5 a,4 a,3 a项目单位面积产能较项目未实施时粮食产能分别提高15.69%,9.80%和3.92%。[结论] 5项因素对新增耕地粮食产能影响程度表现为:新增耕地质量等别 > 新增耕地基础设施 > 新增耕地面积 > 新增耕地单位面积投资 > 新增耕地年限,因此要将新增耕地粮食产能提高的着力点放在耕地质量等别的提高方面。
关键词:  黄土旱塬  新增耕地  耕地等别  粮食产能  土壤理化特性
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.04.032
分类号:X826
基金项目:中华人民共和国自然资源部“甘肃省耕地质量分等更新项目”
Quality Grades of Newly Cultivated Land and Factors Influencing Grain Productivity in Loess Tableland Area
Zhou Xinhua
Abstract:
[Objective] The newly cultivated land classification and the factors influencing grain production capacity in the arid loess tableland area were analyzed in order to provide a theoretical basis for farmland protection and food security improvement in this area. [Methods] Taking the three “balance of farmland occupation and compensation” projects between 2015—2017 in Jingtai County in Central Gansu Province of Loess Plateau as an example, 7 agricultural land classification factors of newly cultivated land were selected to calculate the quality grades of newly cultivated land and grain production capacity. At the same time, the soil physical and chemical properties of newly cultivated land were analyzed, and a logistic regression model was used to analyze the impact of various factors on food production capacity from the factors influencing the quality of newly cultivated land. [Results] The implementation of land occupation-compensation balance project in Jingtai County increased the quality grades of newly cultivated land by 1 to 2 grades. There was a significant positive correlation between the grain production capacity and the average grade of newly cultivated land. Irrigated land accounted for 91.84% of the total newly cultivated land with a total grain production capacity of 93.36%. When the age of new cultivated land was 3 years, the soil structure destruction rate was reduced by 2.05%, compared with that of 1 year, soil erosion resistance was significantly improved, and soil total nitrogen, organic matter, and available potassium increased by 10.67%, 15.39%, and 13.62%, respectively. After planting for 3 to 5 years, the production capacity per unit area of 5 a cultivation, 4 a cultivation and 3 a cultivation projects was increased by 15.69%, 9.80% and 3.92%, respectively, compared with the unimplemented grain production capacity. [Conclusion] The impact of 5 factors on the grain production capacity of newly cultivated land is as follows: the levels of newly cultivated land> infrastructure in newly cultivated land> newly cultivated land area > investment in newly cultivated land unit area > years of newly cultivated land. Therefore, the focus of increasing the grain production capacity of newly-added cultivated land should be put on increasing the quality grade of cultivated land.
Key words:  arid-highland of Loess Plateau  newly cultivated land  quality grades of cultivated land  grain productivity  physical and chemical properties of soil