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中国黑土研究的热点问题及水土流失防治对策
张兴义, 刘晓冰
中国科学院 东北地理与农业生态研究所 海伦黑土水土保持监测研究站, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150081
摘要:
[目的] 总结中国东北黑土区水土流失特征及其防治所取得的成效,为黑土侵蚀防治和黑土地保护提供参考。[方法] 根据多年的研究积累,结合区域调研和已有文献,归纳近年来中国关于黑土研究的有关热点问题,总结坡耕地水土流失防治成效。[结果] 确认了全球共有4大片黑土地区,其中中国东北黑土区面积为1.09×106 km2。虽然当前坡耕地黑土层因侵蚀变薄速率较高(2~3 mm/a),水土流失导致全坡面土壤质量下降,但可以肯定,至少在未来100 a内黑土不会消失。东北黑土区已建立了效果显著的水土保持技术体系,可有效降低水土流失80%以上,使土壤有机质年均增加速率达5.4‰,作物产量提高10%以上。[结论] 应该以土壤侵蚀面积和强度双重指标衡量其水土流失严重程度。在未来30 a内,黑土区水土流失防治工作应以坡耕地治理为主,以法律为保障,以国家工程为引领。
关键词:  黑土  水土流失  水土保持  东北地区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.04.046
分类号:S157
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“东北黑土区侵蚀沟生态修复关键技术研发与集成示范”(2017YFC0504200);黑龙江省级资助项目(GX18B051);国家自然科学基金项目(41571264);黑龙江省重点基金项目(ZD20160009)
Key Issues of Mollisols Research and Soil Erosion Control Strategies in China
Zhang Xingyi, Liu Xiaobing
Hailun Monitoring and Research Station for Black Soil and Water Conservation, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The research achievements regarding soil erosion and soil erosion control in the mollisols area of Northeast China were summarized to provide reference for the conservation of mollisols arable-land in the new era. [Methods] Based on the research results of many years, and in combination with information from field surveys and published papers, some key issues of mollisols research and the effectiveness of soil erosion control were discussed. [Results] There are four mollisols areas in the world. The area of mollisols in Northeast China covers 1.09×106 km2, where the top dark layer in sloping farmland has thinned at a rate of 2—3 mm per year in recent years. Although this would have induced a decline in soil quality over an entire slope, it is evident that the mollisols would not disappeared in at least 100 years. Effective technological systems of soil and water conservation in Northeast China have been established in recent years. The application of these technological systems could effectively reduce soil erosion by at least 80%, increase the soil organic matter content at a rate of 5.4‰ per year, and lead to a yield gain of more than 10%. [Conclusion] Soil erosion control measures should focus on sloping arable land, and the indicators that are used to assess the related achievements should include the area affected by soil erosion as well as the erosion intensity. The laws relating to soil and water conservation should be taken as insurance and national engineering projects as guide.
Key words:  mollisols  soil erosion  soil and water conservation  Northeast China