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干旱荒漠区排矸场不同覆盖类型对土壤水分蒸发的影响
珊丹1, 荣浩1, 刘艳萍1, 梁占岐1, 张欣1, 石红标2
1.水利部 牧区水利科学研究所, 内蒙古, 呼和浩特 010020;2.乌拉特前旗自然资源管理局, 内蒙古, 巴彦淖尔市 014400
摘要:
[目的] 在水分匮乏的干旱荒漠区煤矿废弃地植被恢复过程中,研究不同边坡覆盖模式对土壤水分蒸发的影响,为干旱荒漠区矿区废弃地生态恢复模式优化与完善植被恢复技术提供科学依据。[方法] 以中国西北干旱荒漠区煤炭基地废弃地——排矸场为研究对象,研究不同覆盖类型排矸场边坡土壤水分蒸发和表层土壤水分的变化。试验设置了草帘、生态毯和液态地膜3种覆盖类型,以无覆盖为对照。[结果] 干旱荒漠区煤矿排矸场边坡表层土壤含水量基本呈随着坡位降低而增加的变化规律;蒸发试验进行初期各覆盖处理的土壤日蒸发量较大,随着时间推移日蒸发量逐渐降低,草帘覆盖下的平均土壤日蒸发量最低,与无覆盖处理之间的变化差异达到显著水平(p<0.05);3种覆盖与无覆盖处理下的土壤水分累积蒸发量在排矸场边坡的不同坡位均表现出逐步上升的规律,无覆盖措施的土壤累积蒸发量增加较明显,草帘覆盖、液膜覆盖和生态毯覆盖措施下的土壤累积蒸发量分别比无覆盖措施减少了38.4%,24.2%和20.6%,坡面覆盖处理的土壤累积蒸发过程符合线性函数关系。[结论] 在草帘、生态毯和液态地膜3种覆盖类型中,草帘覆盖下的土壤含水量较高,草帘是减少边坡表层土壤水分蒸发量最为适合的覆盖措施。
关键词:  边坡  覆盖物  土壤水分蒸发  土壤含水量
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.05.003
分类号:S157.2
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“西北干旱荒漠区煤炭基地生态安全保障技术”(2017YFC0504405);内蒙古自治区科技重大专项项目“重点区域荒漠化过程与生态修复研究与示范”(zdzx2018058)
Effects of Different Mulching Modes on Soil Moisture Evaporation at Gangue Fields in Arid Desert Regions
Shan Dan1, Rong Hao1, Liu Yanping1, Liang Zhanqi1, Zhang Xin1, Shi Hongbiao2
1.Institute of Water Resources for Pastoral Area, Ministry of Water Resources of China, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010020, China;2.Natural Resources Authority, Wulateqian Qi, Bayannur, Inner Mongolia 014400, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects of different mulching modes on soil water evaporation were studied during the vegetation restoration of a coal mine wasteland in an arid desert area in order to provide a scientific basis for the optimization of the ecological restoration model of abandoned land in arid desert areas, and for the improvement of vegetation restoration technology.[Methods] The influence of different mulching modes on the evaporation of soil moisture and the soil moisture content were investigated on a dump slope of a gangue field in an arid desert region. Bare land was used as a control. The tested mulching modes included straw curtain mulching, eco-mat mulching, and liquid film mulching.[Results] The moisture content of surface soil increased with a decrease in the slope position of the dump slope. The daily evaporation capacity of the soil was relatively high during the early evaporation period, but decreased gradually over time. The average daily evaporation capacity of the soil was the lowest for the straw curtain mulching mode, which differed significantly (p<0.05) from that of bare land. The cumulative evaporation capacity of the soil increased gradually at different slope positions of the dump slope under the different mulching modes. The cumulative evaporation capacity of the soil in the bare land substantially increased. The cumulative evaporation capacity of soil under the straw curtain mulching, liquid film mulching, and eco-mat mulching modes decreased by 38.4%, 24.2%, and 20.6%, respectively, compared with that of the bare land. There was a linear relationship between the cumulative evaporation capacity of the soil and time under the different mulching modes.[Conclusion] The moisture content under the straw curtain mulching mode was higher than that under the liquid film and eco-mat mulching modes. Straw curtain mulching could provide the moat reasonable mulching model for the dump slope of the gangue field.
Key words:  dump slope  mulching  soil moisture evaporation  soil water content