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中国东北漫川漫岗典型黑土区沟道侵蚀特征
丁超1, 胡伟2, 严月2, 祁志1, 韩兴1
1.吉林农业大学 资源与环境学院, 吉林 长春 130118;2.中国科学院 东北地理与农业生态研究所, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150081
摘要:
[目的] 通过对450 km2黑土区进行实测调查,旨在评估研究区沟道侵蚀现状。[方法] 选取沟道侵蚀严重的450 km2的漫川漫岗黑土区为调查区域,首先在谷歌卫星影像上进行侵蚀沟识别和定位,再对侵蚀沟立体形态进行实地测量。[结果] ①研究区土地利用以耕地为主,耕地、建设用地、林地、草地分别占研究区总面积的85%,8%,6%,1%。②研究区坡耕地占86%,坡度0.25°~3.0°占64%,大于5°的占12%。③共有侵蚀沟1 049条,其中耕地中侵蚀沟577条,占总侵蚀沟条数的55%;沟壑密度1.2 km/km2,按沟壑密度衡量沟蚀强度为中度;沟壑面积比例为2.89%,以此界定沟蚀强度为剧烈。④研究区侵蚀沟平均长度、宽度、深度和面积分别为996,13.1,2.7 m和2.4 hm2。[结论] 漫川漫岗黑土区沟道侵蚀严重,主要危害坡耕地,但侵蚀沟相对较小,易于治理。
关键词:  黑土区  侵蚀沟  土地利用  遥感分类  GIS
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.05.012
分类号:S157
基金项目:国家重点研发项目“东北黑土区侵蚀沟生态修复关键技术研究与示范推广”(2017YFC0504200);黑龙江省科技专项“东北黑土区沟毁耕地填埋复垦技术”(GX18B051)
Gully Characteristics Based on Observations in Typical Rolling-Hill Mollisol Region of Northeast China
Ding Chao1, Hu Wei2, Yan Yue2, Qi Zhi1, Han Xing1
1.College of Resources and Environment, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118, China;2.Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The present situation of gully erosion in a black soil area (450 km2) was evaluated to provide the basis for the hazard assessment and scientific prevention and control of erosion gully in the black soil area of Northeast China.[Methods] We selected an undulating hilly region that was seriously affected by gully erosion as the research area for a field survey. We first located the erosion gullies on a Google satellite image and then measured their three-dimensional shape in-situ.[Results] ① Land in the study area is mainly used for farming. The results showed that cultivated land, construction land, forest land, and grassland accounted for 85%, 8%, 6%, and 1% of the total area, respectively. ② Cultivated land on slopes accounted for 86% of the total cultivated land area; 64% of the slopes in these areas had a gradient of between 0.25° and 3.0°, and 12% had a gradient of > 5°. ③ We found 1 049 erosion gullies in the research area, 55% of which were on cultivated land (577 gullies). The gully density was 1.2 km/km2 and the gully erosion intensity was moderate. The proportion of the gully area was 2.89% of the total study area, which indicated an intense erosion gully. ④ The average length, width, depth, and area of the erosion gullies were 996, 13.1, 2.7 m, and 2.4 hm2, respectively.[Conclusion] Gully erosion is serious in the study area of undulating hills, and mainly affects sloping cultivated land; however, the scale of erosion gullies is relatively small and the gullies can be easily managed.
Key words:  mollisol region  gully erosion  land use  classification by remote sensing  GIS