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山地校园不同下垫面雨水径流重金属污染特征和健康风险评估
董莉莉, 曹必成, 赵瑞一
重庆交通大学 建筑与城市规划学院, 重庆 400074
摘要:
[目的] 了解山地校园不同下垫面雨水径流重金属污染特征及雨水径流中重金属元素对于人体的健康风险,为山地海绵城市建设提供径流污染控制参考和人员健康保护基础数据。[方法] 2019年7月22日在重庆交通大学针对屋顶、道路、停车场和广场4种典型的下垫面进行了雨水径流的取样监测,并统计分析场次降雨平均浓度(EMC)、电导率(EC)、钠吸附率(SAR)、危险商(HQ)和危险指数(HI)。[结果] 广场径流过程中重金属元素整体变化波动较大,道路雨水径流的重金属健康风险最大而屋顶健康风险最小;大多重金属污染物在产流后的10 min内出现了降幅,其中Fe和Mn的降幅较大,Zn的降幅中等,Cu的降幅最低;As和Cr是雨水径流中健康风险最高的重金属污染物。[结论] 山地校园重金属污染物冲刷速度较快,人流大的下垫面雨水径流中重金属元素变化波动较大,但健康风险较低;车流大的下垫面雨水径流中重金属元素波动较为稳定,但健康风险较高。
关键词:  山地校园  下垫面  降雨径流  重金属  健康风险评估  海绵城市
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.05.014
分类号:X832
基金项目:住房城乡建设部科学技术计划项目“基于CGB集成的既有校园绿色改造适宜性技术研究与应用”(2017-K1-022);重庆市社会科学规划项目“基于自下而上视角的重庆城市生态品质提升评价研究”(2019YBSH085);重庆市研究生科研创新项目(CYS20295)
Heavy Metal Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Rainwater Runoff on Different Underlying Surfaces of Mountainous Campus
Dong Lili, Cao Bicheng, Zhao Ruiyi
College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China
Abstract:
[Objective] A study was conducted to understand the heavy metal pollution characteristics of rainwater runoff on different underlying surfaces and the health risks of heavy metal elements in rainwater runoff for the human body. The goal was to provide reference for runoff pollution control in the construction of a sponge city in a mountainous region and provide basic data for human health protection.[Methods] The rainwater runoff of four typical underlying surfaces for a roof, road, parking lot, and square was sampled and monitored at Chongqing Jiaotong University on July 22, 2019. The even mean concentrations, electric conductivity, sodium adsorption rate, hazard quotient, and hazard index were statistically analyzed.[Results] The overall change of heavy metal elements fluctuates greatly during the square runoff process. The health risk of heavy metals in rainwater runoff on roads was the largest, and that of runoff on roofs was the smallest. The large amount of multiple metal pollutants showed a decrease in 10 min after the runoff. The decreases in Fe and Mn were the largest, the decrease in Zn was moderate, and the decrease in Cu was the lowest. As and Cr were the heavy metal pollutants with the highest health risks in rainwater runoff.[Conclusion] Heavy metal pollutants scour faster in a mountainous campus. The heavy metal elements in rainwater runoff of the underlying surfaces with a large human flow fluctuate greatly, but the health risk is low. Heavy metal elements in rainwater runoff of the underlying surfaces with heavy traffic flow have more-stable fluctuations, but they have higher health risks.
Key words:  mountainous campus  underlying surface  rainwater runoff  heavy mental  health risk assessment  sponge city