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黄土丘陵沟壑区沟道造地土壤养分变化特征及评价
王晶1,2, 董起广2, 张露2, 白清俊1
1.西安理工大学 水利水电学院, 陕西 西安 710048;2.陕西省土地工程建设集团有限责任公司 陕西地建土地工程技术研究院有限责任公司 自然资源部退化及未利用土地整治工程重点实验室 陕西省土地整治工程技术研究中心, 陕西 西安 710075
摘要:
[目的] 研究黄土丘陵沟壑区治沟造地工程后沟道土壤养分的变化特征,为该区改进土地整治方法,采取合理耕种管理措施及提高养分资源利用率提供科学依据。[方法] 以陕西省延安市典型治沟造地项目区土壤为研究对象,采用统计分析方法,分别对项目区整治前、整治后2,3,6 a土壤有机质、全氮、有效磷、速效钾4个指标的变化特征进行分析,并采用物元模型对其进行综合评价。[结果] ①除速效钾外,研究区土壤养分含量普遍较低;沟道中土壤养分变异程度较大,属中等变异程度,土地整治后,沟道中各种养分变异系数有变小的趋势。②沟道土地整治后6 a时间内,随工程实施年限的增加,土壤有机质含量呈现出先减少后增加的趋势,6 a时含量低于整治前;土壤全氮和有效磷含量呈现先增加后减少的趋势,6 a时高于整治前;土壤速效钾含量持续降低。③沟道土地整治后3 a,土壤养分评价等级恢复到整治前水平,且有继续提高的潜力。[结论] 与坡面土地整治相比,黄土丘陵沟壑区沟道造地土壤养分恢复时间更短,可根据沟道不同位置土壤养分变异特征,调整沟道作物空间布局,实施不同程度和方法的管理措施,增加粮食产量。
关键词:  治沟造地  土壤养分  整治年限  物元模型
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.06.010
分类号:S153.6
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“沟道及坡面治理工程的生态安全保障技术集成与综合示范”(2017YFC0504705)
Change Characteristics and Evaluation of Soil Nutrient of Gully Cultivated Land in Loess Hilly and Gully Region
Wang Jing1,2, Dong Qiguang2, Zhang Lu2, Bai Qingjun1
1.Institute of Water Resources and Hydro-electric Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710048, China;2.Shaanxi Provincial Land Engineering Construction Group Co. Ltd., Institute of Land Engineering and Technology, Shaanxi Provincial Land Engineering Construction Group Co., Ltd., Key Laboratory of Degraded and Unused Land Consolidation Engineering, the Ministry of Natural and Resources, Shaanxi Provincial Land Consolidation Engineering Technology Research Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710075, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The characteristics of soil nutrient changes after gully control and land consolidation were investigated in order to improve the land consolidation methods, take the proper cultivation management measures and increase the nutrient utilization efficiency of the loess hilly and gully region.[Methods] Taking the typical land-consolidation project in Yan'an City, Shaanxi Province as the research object, soil samples at different locations of the gullies before and at 2, 3 a and 6 a after the consolidation were collected, and the change characteristics of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium were analyzed based on the statistical analysis method. The comprehensive evaluation of soil nutrients was performed by matter-element model.[Results] ① The soil nutrient level in the study area was generally low, except for the available potassium. The variation of soil nutrients in the gully was relatively large, belonging to moderate degree of variation. After the land consolidation, the variation coefficient of soil nutrients tended to decrease. ② Soil organic matter content decreased at first and then increased with the increase of project implementation within 6 years after the gully consolidation, and the content of soil organic carbon was lower than that before consolidation. Soil total nitrogen and available phosphorus increased at first and then decreased, which was higher than those before years. Soil available potassium decreased continuously after consolidation. ③ Three years after the land consolidation, the soil nutrient evaluation level in the study area returned to the level before remediation, and had the potential to continue to improve.[Conclusion] Compared with slope land consolidation, soil nutrients could recover faster following the gully land consolidation in the loess hilly and gully region. According to the variation characteristics of soil nutrients in different locations, the grain yield could be increased through adjusting the spatial layout of crops and implementing different management strategies.
Key words:  gully control and land consolidation  soil nutrients  consolidation years  matter-element model