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径流作用下泥石流固体物质冲刷速率试验研究
安笑1,2,3, 潘华利1,2, 邓其娟4, 欧国强1,2, 李炳志1,2,3, 孔玲1,2,3
1.中国科学院 山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室, 四川 成都 610041;2.中国科学院水利部 成都山地灾害与环境研究所, 四川 成都 610041;3.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;4.四川建筑职业技术学院, 四川 成都 610081
摘要:
[目的] 探讨泥石流固体物质的冲刷深度随时间的变化规律,以及对应的冲刷速率与不同影响因素之间存在的关系,为泥石流规模预测及防治工程设计提供参考依据。[方法] 根据激光测距仪的历时测距原理,借助试验方法分析泥石流固体物质冲刷深度随时间的变化规律以及对应的冲刷速率与不同影响因素之间的关系,包括来流流量、水力半径、沟床纵坡以及细粒物质含量等。[结果] 冲刷速率与水力半径间呈指数关系,与来流流量间呈正相关关系,与能坡梯度间呈指数关系;若固体物质为均匀冲刷,冲刷速率与剩余切应力成线性正相关关系;对于初始含水率相对较低的固体物质,冲刷速率随着细粒物质含量的增大呈微小增大趋势。[结论] 在薄层径流条件下,能坡梯度对冲刷速率的影响高于水力半径。
关键词:  泥石流  径流冲刷作用  冲刷速率  剩余切应力
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.06.014
分类号:TV144
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“山洪多要素立体监测技术及体系研发”(2017YFC1502502),“区域山洪灾害监测预警技术集成与应用示范”(2017YFC1502506);国家自然科学基金项目(51679229;41672318);云南省应用基础研究计划项目(2016FB074);中国科学院成都山地所135项目(2017年);中国科学院青年创新促进会(2018405)
Experimental Study on Scouring Rate of Debris Flow Solid Matter Under Runoff
An Xiao1,2,3, Pan Huali1,2, Deng Qijuan4, Ou Guoqiang1,2, Li Bingzhi1,2,3, Kong Ling1,2,3
1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Surface Processes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China;2.Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China;3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;4.Sichuan College of Architectural Technology, Chengdu, Sichuan 610081, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The variation of the erosion depth of debris flow solid mater, and the relationship between the corresponding scouring rate and different influencing factors were explored in order to provide reference for debris flow prediction and prevention engineering design.[Methods] According to the principle of the laser rangefinder, the variation of the erosion depth of debris flow solid matter over time and the relationship between the corresponding erosion rate and different influencing factors were explored, including the incoming flow, hydraulic radius, and gully bed longitudinal slope and the content of fine particles.[Results] The scour rate showed an exponential relationship with the hydraulic radius, a positive correlation with the incoming flow, and an exponential relationship with the energy slope gradient. If the solid matter was uniformly scoured, the scouring rate had a linear positive correlation with residual shear force. For the solid matter with a relatively low initial moisture content, the scouring rate increased slightly with the increase of the content of fine particles.[Conclusion] Under the condition of thin runoff, the energy slope gradient had a greater influence on the erosion rate, compared to the hydraulic radius.
Key words:  debris flow  runoff  scouring rate  residual shear