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降解地膜和渗水地膜覆盖对中国北方主要旱地作物产量和水分利用效率效应的Meta分析
闫乃桐1, 张佳丽1, 王仕稳1,2, 马登科2, 殷俐娜1,2, 姚建民3, 杨三维3, 刘虎林3
1.西北农林科技大学 资源环境学院, 陕西 杨陵 712100;2.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨陵 712100;3.山西省农业科学院农业资源与经济研究所, 山西 太原 030031
摘要:
[目的] 明确降解地膜和渗水地膜的最佳适宜区域、适宜作物,以及和普通地膜的效应差异,为降解地膜和渗水地膜的应用提供理论指导。[方法] 通过文献检索,分析整理关于降解地膜和渗水地膜的田间试验研究成果,进行了Meta分析。[结果] 降解地膜覆盖的所有作物产量及水分利用效率均显著高于无覆盖;和普通地膜比,降解地膜覆盖下玉米减产,棉花增产,对其他作物产量无差异;在降雨量小于500 mm时,降解地膜覆盖下作物产量低于普通地膜,而降雨量高于500 mm时产量无显著差异。渗水地膜覆盖下玉米、小麦、谷子和高粱等作物的产量和水分利用效率均显著高于无覆盖;和普通地膜比,渗水地膜覆盖下玉米和谷子产量及水分利用效率高于普通地膜,尤其是谷子增产效果显著。在降雨量小于500 mm的地区,渗水地膜和普通地膜比增产显著,高于500 mm则无差异。降解地膜生育后期的土壤温度低于普通地膜,而渗水地膜在低温下增温效果优于高温,且整个生育期温度更适合作物需求。[结论] 降解地膜在降雨量大于500 mm的短生育期作物上基本可以替代普通地膜,但是在长生育期作物上及降雨量较低地区应用有风险;而渗水地膜应该优先在降雨量低于500 mm地区的短生育期高叶面积指数作物上应用。
关键词:  地膜覆盖  降解地膜  渗水地膜  产量  水分利用效率  土壤温度
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.06.018
分类号:S152.7;S626
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“秦巴山、吕梁山主要经济作物提质增效技术集成研究与示范”(2018YFD1001000)
Meta-analysis of Effect of Degradable Plastic Film and Water-permeable Plastic Film Mulching on Dryland Crop Yield and Water Using Efficiency in Northern China
Yan Naitong1, Zhang Jiali1, Wang Shiwen1,2, Ma Dengke2, Yin Lina1,2, Yao Jianmin3, Yang Sanwei3, Liu Hulin3
1.College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources/State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;3.Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economy, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The best suitable areas, suitable crops, and the effect difference between degradable and water-permeable mulching film were studied in order to provide theoretical guidance for the application of degradable and water-permeable mulching film.[Methods] The field researches on degradable mulch and water-permeable mulch were collected through the search of literatures, and a meta-analysis was performed based on these studies.[Results] The yield and WUE of all crops covered by degradable mulching film were significantly higher than that of no mulching; compared with ordinary mulching film, the degradable mulching film reduced the yield of corn and increased the yield of cotton, and there were no difference to other crops. The yield was lower than ordinary mulching film when the rainfall was less than 500 mm, while the rainfall was higher than 500 mm, there was no significant difference in yield. The yield and WUE of corn, wheat, millet and sorghum covered with water-permeable plastic film were significantly higher than those without mulching; compared with ordinary plastic film, the yield and WUE of corn and millet covered with water-permeable plastic film were higher than those of ordinary plastic film, especially in the millet which showed a significant increase in yield. Compared with ordinary mulching film, water-permeable mulching film had a significant increase effect in production in areas where the rainfall was less than 500 mm, and there was no difference above 500 mm. The soil temperature of the degradable mulching film in the late growth period was lower than that of the ordinary mulching film, while the temperature increase effect of the water-permeable mulching film at low temperature was better than that at high temperature, and the temperature of whole the growth period was more suitable for crop needs.[Conclusion] At present, degradable mulching film can basically replace ordinary mulching film on short-growth crops with rainfall greater than 500 mm, but it is risky to apply it on long growth period crops in areas with low rainfall; and water-permeable mulching film should be prioritized when rainfall is less than 500 mm in short growth period crop.
Key words:  plastic film mulching  degradable plastic film  water-permeable plastic film  yield  water use efficiency  soil temperature