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植被自然恢复对煤矸石堆场Fe/Mn淋溶迁移的影响及其作用效果
刘方1,2, 陈祖拥1, 刘元生1, 朱健1,2, 卜通达1
1.贵州大学 环境与资源研究所, 贵州 贵阳 550025;2.贵州喀斯特环境生态系统教育部野外科学观测研究站, 贵州 贵阳 550025
摘要:
[目的] 探讨植被自然恢复下植被类型对煤矸石堆场Fe,Mn淋溶迁移的影响及其作用效果,为煤矿区煤矸石堆场的生态环境治理及生态修复提供科学依据。[方法] 通过对贵州省中部废弃煤矿区不同植被条件下煤矸石堆场地表径流进行采样分析,同时通过移植煤矸石堆场上生长的马尾松、光皮桦和类芦进行盆栽试验以及采集基质渗透水样品。[结果] 马尾松、光皮桦及类芦生长的煤矸石基质渗透水和煤矸石堆场地表径流水中Fe,Mn含量均显著地低于无植物生长的煤矸石,煤矸石堆场植被自然恢复后地表径流水中Fe,Mn含量下降率分别达45.27%~85.60%,60.17%~90.13%,植被作用效果的大小顺序为:马尾松幼林 > 阔叶树幼林 > 类芦草丛。同时,马尾松幼林、阔叶树幼林、类芦草丛煤矸石堆场地表径流水中泥沙含量分别比无植被裸露的煤矸石堆场平均减少了40.18%,30.67%,27.91%。煤矸石中矿物颗粒态Fe,Mn的迁移量也出现明显的降低。[结论] 植被自然恢复能显著地减少煤矸石堆场Fe,Mn向水体的迁移及改善废弃煤矿区地表水环境质量。植物生长,特别是马尾松生长对减少煤矸石中Fe向水体迁移产生的环境效应大于Mn。
关键词:  植被恢复  煤矸石堆场  地表径流  Fe/Mn淋溶迁移
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.06.026
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“煤矿废弃地煤矸石—水界面锰迁移的生态规律与调控机制”(41661094);贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合平台人才[2017]5788号)
Effects of Natural Vegetation Restoration on Fe/Mn Leaching and Migration in Coal Gangue Yard
Liu Fang1,2, Chen Zuyong1, Liu Yuansheng1, Zhu Jian1,2, Bu Tongda1
1.Environment and Resource Institute of Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China;2.Guizhou Karst Environmental Ecosystem Field Science Observation and Research Station, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects of vegetation types on the leaching and migration of Fe/Mn in coal gangue dumps under natural vegetation restoration were discussed in order to provide a scientific basis for the ecological environment management and ecological restoration of coal gangue dumps in coal mining areas.[Methods] The surface runoff of the coal gangue yard under different vegetation conditions in the abandoned coal mine area of central Guizhou Province was sampled and analyzed. At the same time, pot experiment was carried out by transplanting Masson pine, Betula luminifera and reed growing on coal gangue yard, and the samples of matrix permeate water were collected.[Results] The content of Fe or Mn in the infiltrated water of coal gangue substrates, and in the surface runoff water of coal gangue pile site grown with Masson pine, Betula luminifera and reed was significantly lower than that of gangue without plant growth. After natural recovery vegetation at coal gangue pile site, the decrease rates of Fe and Mn contents in surface runoff water were 45.27%~85.60% and 60.17%~90.13% respectively, the order of vegetation effects was Pinus massoniana young forest > Broadleaf young forest > reed grass. The sediment content of surface runoff water in the gangue pile sites grown with Pinus massoniana young forest, broad-leaved tree young forest, and reed-like grass was reduced by 40.18%, 30.67%, and 27.91%, respectively, compared with that of gangue without plant growth, and the migration of mineral particulate Fe and Mn in coal gangue was also decreased significantly.[Conclusion] Natural vegetation restoration can significantly reduce migration of Fe and Mn from the coal gangue yard to the water and improve the surface water quality in abandoned coal mines. The environmental effect of plant growth on reducing the migration of Fe from coal gangue to water was greater than that of Mn, especially the growth of Pinus massoniana.
Key words:  vegetation restoration  coal gangue yard  surface runoff  Fe/Mn leaching and migration