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道路侵蚀研究的进展与展望
徐倩1, 焦菊英1,2, 严晰芹2, 陈玉兰2, 宗小天1, 林红1,3
1.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所, 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所, 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100;3.西藏自治区山南市错那县自然资源局, 西藏 山南 856000
摘要:
[目的] 分析目前道路侵蚀研究中所存在的问题及未来亟需关注的研究方向,为防治流域土壤侵蚀和保障流域生态环境安全与高质量发展提供重要依据。[方法] 通过查阅文献,从道路侵蚀的界定、道路侵蚀的特征及影响因素,道路侵蚀研究方法等方面进行总结和分析。[结果] 目前关于道路侵蚀研究存在的主要问题表现在: ①研究方法尚不成熟,模拟降雨/冲刷试验法应用较广,实地监测法和模型模拟法应用较少;②研究内容多局限于道路原位侵蚀效应,而鲜少涉及道路异位侵蚀效应;③道路侵蚀防治研究大都围绕硬化道路进行,土质道路相关研究薄弱。[结论] 未来关于道路侵蚀的研究应结合道路侵蚀特点及其影响因素,运用连通性的概念,探明道路存在对路域及整个流域中的径流泥沙输移的“开关”作用,揭示道路对流域内径流及泥沙的输移机制的影响,并因地制宜地提出硬化道路的维护管理措施和土质道路的侵蚀防治措施。
关键词:  道路侵蚀  连通性  径流泥沙输移机制  研究进展
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.04.046
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“黄土丘陵沟壑区小流域道路侵蚀与水文连通性的耦合作用机制”(42077078),“黄土丘陵沟壑区流域泥沙连通性对降雨与人类活动的响应机制”(41771319)
Progress and Prospect of Research on Road Erosion
Xu Qian1, Jiao Juying1,2, Yan Xiqin2, Chen Yulan2, Zong Xiaotian1, Lin Hong1,3
1.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;3.Natural Resources Department of Cuona County in Shannan City of Tibetan Autonomous Region, Shannan, Tibet 856000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The existing issues in road erosion research and the research directions that need to be paid attention in the future were analyzed in order to provide important basis for soil erosion prevention and control, ecological environment safety and high-quality development of the watershed.[Methods] Through literature review, the definition of road erosion, the characteristics and influencing factors of road erosion were summarized and analyzed. [Results] The main problems existing in the study of road erosion are as follows: ① The research methods of road erosion were still immature. Simulated rainfall/scour test method were widely used, while field monitoring and model simulations were rarely used. ② Most of research contents were limited to the in-site erosion effect of road, and few involve the off-site erosion effect of road. ③ Most studies on road erosion control were focused on hardened roads, and only a few studies were focused on unhardened roads. [Conclusion] Future road erosion study should combine the characteristics of road erosion and its influencing factors, use the concept of connectivity to explore the “switch” effect of road on the transportation of runoff and sediment in the road area and the whole watershed, so as to reveal the influence of road on the mechanism of runoff and sediment transportation in the whole watershed. In future, the maintenance and management measures of hardened road and erosion control measures of soil road should be proposed according to local conditions.
Key words:  road erosion  connectivity  runoff and sediment transport mechanism  research progress