In this century, the problems concerning agriculture, count ryside and farmers become a major focus,and soil and water conservation becomes one of basic national policies in China. The connotation and background of the problems and the situation of soil and water conservation are expatiated. T he sustainable development of agr-iculture is rest ricted by the degradation of ecological environment . It is proved that the ecolog ical environment of China can be improved effectively by soil and water conservation, and at the same time, the problems can be solved partially . The key to the problems and soil and water conservation is that theory should be combined with practice.