国家自然科学基金项目"新疆渭干河流域土地利用/土地覆盖生态风险及预警研究"(41261051), "塔里木盆地北缘绿洲—荒漠过渡带植被对土壤盐渍化的响应研究"(41561051); 国家农业部和财政部"测土配方施肥补贴资金项目—耕地地力评价"
[目的] 对干旱荒漠绿洲区耕层土壤养分空间特征进行研究,为绿洲土地资源的合理开发利用,以及土壤施肥方案的科学制定提供理论依据. [方法] 基于GIS与地统计学方法对新疆维吾尔自治区精河县耕层土壤养分空间变异特征及影响因素进行分析. [结果] (1) 研究区内有效磷的空间变异性较强(变异系数Cv为67.45%),速效钾的空间变异性最弱(Cv为40.76%).(2) 有机质、碱解氮和有效磷存在较强的空间自相关性,其空间变异主要由地形、土壤质地和土壤类型等结构性因素所引起;速效钾为中等程度的空间自相关性,其空间变异不仅受结构性因素的影响,还与随机因素(即施肥和种植结构)有关.(3) 各土壤养分元素在绿洲内部具有较高含量的片状和斑块状分布,而在绿洲外缘,其含量相对较低,且呈大面积的片状分布. [结论] 精河县耕层土壤养分总体呈现出有机肥含量缺乏,磷钾肥相对丰富的特点.
[Objective] We aimed to study the spatial characteristics of arable layer soil nutrient elements in the arid desert-oasis region in order to provide the theoretical basis for the rational development and utilization of land resources in oasis. [Methods] Based on the methods of GIS and geo-statistics, the spatial variation of the soil nutrient in arable layer and its driving factors were analyzed in Jinghe County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. [Results] (1) The coefficient of variation(Cv) of effective phosphorus was the greatest (Cv was 67.45%), while the spatial variability of rapidly-available potassium was the least(Cv was 40.76%). (2) Organic matter, alkali-hydro nitrogen and effective phosphorus showed a strong spatial autocorrelation, and the spatial variability was mainly caused by structural factors such as terrain, soil texture and soil type. Rapidly-available potassium showed a moderate spatial auto-correlation. The spatial variability of rapidly-available potassium was not only affected by the structural factors, but also by the random factors such as fertilization and the planting structure. (3) The soil nutrient elements in the central area of Jinghe County oasis showed a patchy distribution, while in the outer of oasis, the content of soil nutrient elements was relatively low, and it showed a sheet distribution. [Conclusion] Organic matter is lacing, while phosphate and potash fertilizer is abundant in the arable layer soil in Jinghe County.