青藏高原柴达木盆地东部地区的土壤侵蚀现状调查
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科技部第二次青藏高原综合考察研究(2019QZKK0603);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项“泛第三极环境变化与绿色丝绸之路建设”(XDA20040202)


Investigation on Current Status of Soil Erosion in Eastern Qaidam Basin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
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    摘要:

    [目的] 开展柴达木盆地的土壤侵蚀现状调查研究,旨在为柴达木盆地土壤侵蚀防治和青藏高原环境治理提供科学依据。[方法] 考察组分别于2019,2020,2021年7月3次赴柴达木盆地,沿德令哈市、格尔木市、都兰县一带,对选取的77个样地内不同土地利用类型植被、土壤、侵蚀特征和水土保持措施进行了调查和分析。[结果] 柴达木盆地以风蚀为主,在作物生长季,耕地没有明显的风蚀现象,说明作物的水土保持效果显著。不同利用类型土地的平均土壤风蚀速率大小顺序为:沙地>耕地>撂荒地>灌草地;土壤侵蚀沟多出现于山前洪积扇和山坡上的灌草地,洪积扇上的沟蚀较为严重;植物沙堆分布广泛,种类多样,沙堆体积与植物冠幅相关性强,植物拦沙作用明显。同时,该区还存在部分耕地因灌溉系统管理不善而造成土壤侵蚀和地下水位上升大;种植枸杞的沙田管理不到位,水土保持措施不完善,水土保持投入不足等问题。[结论] 柴达木盆地土壤侵蚀类型复杂多样,需要在加强水土保持工作的同时,完善灌溉系统的维护,加强土壤盐渍化治理和沙田保育,切实保障柴达木盆地的土地资源可持续性。

    Abstract:

    [Objective] The current status of soil erosion in the Eastern Qaidam Basin was investigated in order to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of soil erosion in this region, and for effective environmental management of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.[Methods] The investigations were conducted in July 2019, 2020,2021 in the Eastern Qaidam Basin, along Delingha, Golmud City, and Dulan County. 77 investigation plots were selected to investigate vegetation, soil, characteristics of soil erosion, and soil and water conservation measures.[Results] Qaidam Basin was dominated by wind erosion. During the crop growing season, there was no obvious wind erosion phenomenon on cultivated land, indicating that the soil and water conservation of crops was remarkable. The average soil wind erosion rates of different land use types followed the order of sandy land> cultivated land> abandoned land> shrub land. Gully erosion was mostly found on the grassland of piedmont alluvial fans and hillsides. Gully erosion on alluvial fans was more serious than on hillsides. Nebkhases were widely distributed and exhibited a diverse mix of species. Nebkhas volume had a strong correlation with plant canopy, and their sand blocking effect was obvious. The main existing problems were soil erosion and rising groundwater level caused by over irrigation of cultivated land, inadequate management of sandy land for planting wolfberry, imperfect soil and water conservation measures, and insufficient investment in soil and water conservation.[Conclusion] The types of soil erosion in Qaidam Basin are complex and diverse. It is recommended that soil and water conservation practices be strengthened, irrigation system maintenance be improved, and soil salinization management and sandfield conservation be strengthened. Thus will effectively ensure the sustainability of land resources in Qaidam Basin.

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曹雪,焦菊英,李建军,祁泓锟,王湘,白雷超,孙晓晨,陈同德,马晓武.青藏高原柴达木盆地东部地区的土壤侵蚀现状调查[J].水土保持通报,2021,41(5):1-8,29

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  • 收稿日期:2021-07-22
  • 最后修改日期:2021-09-02
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-10-25