[目的] 分析南昌市浅水湖泊象湖表层沉积物的释放特征及有机质对氮、磷释放的影响，为城市内浅水湖泊治理中富营养化控制提供理论依据。[方法] 通过释放动力学试验以及释放潜能试验研究了城市浅水湖泊氨氮（NH4+-N）和溶解性活性磷（SRP）的释放特征，以及与通过H2O2去除有机质后的释放特征进行了对比。[结果] 去除前后的氮磷的释放速率都是先由一个较快的过程逐渐变慢最后趋于稳定达到最大释放量（Qmax）。去除有机质后NH4+-N的释放平衡时间缩短，SRP则几乎不变。去除有机质后，NH4+-N的最大释放量（Qmax）与有机质含量呈显著正相关，而SRP与有机质无显著相关性。[结论] 影响沉积物氮磷释放的因素多样，其中高等水生植物丰富的区域对磷的释放有明显的抑制作用。沉积物有机质的含量越高沉积物氮的最大释放量（Qmax）也越高，磷的的最大释放量（Qmax）则受有机质含量、活性、组成成分、吸附与结合的铁铝磷含量等因素共同影响。
[Objective] The release characteristics of surface sediments in shallow lakes of a city and the influence of organic matter on nitrogen and phosphorus release were analyzed to provide a theoretical basis for eutrophication control of shallow lakes.[Methods] The release characteristics of ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) were studied in a shallow lake through a release kinetics experiment and a release potential experiment. Results were compared with the release characteristics after organic matter was removed by H2O2.[Results] The release rate of nitrogen and phosphorus before and after the removal of organic matter initially slowed down from a faster process, and finally stabilized to reach the maximum release rate. After the removal of organic matter, the release equilibrium time of NH4+-N was shortened, while SRP was almost unchanged. After removing organic matter, the maximum release of NH4+-N was significantly positively correlated with the organic matter content, while SRP had no significant correlation with organic matter.[Conclusion] Various factors influence the release of nitrogen and phosphorus in sediments. Areas rich in higher aquatic plants have a significant inhibitory effect on the release of phosphorus. The higher the content of organic matter in sediments, the higher the maximum release of nitrogen from sediments. The maximum release of phosphorus is affected by factors such as organic matter content, activity, composition, and adsorption, and the combined effects of iron, aluminum, and phosphorus content.