卡拉麦里山有蹄类野生动物自然保护区金矿生态恢复区的土壤理化性质和植被群落特征
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科技部科技基础性工作专项重大项目“卡山保护区管理中心2019中央财政林业改革发展资金(森林生态效益补偿补助)项目”(2013FY110300)。


Soil Physicochemical Properties and Vegetation Community Characteristics in a Gold Mine at Ungulates Wildlife Nature Reserve in Kalamaili Mountain
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    [目的] 调查实施生态修复措施后的矿区土壤状况与植物群落的恢复情况,为矿区修复治理措施提供评价依据。[方法] 以新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类野生动物自然保护区的金矿生态恢复区为研究对象,通过样方法和室内试验,进行研究区植被特征、植物群落多样性调查和土壤理化性质检测分析。[结果] 与原生对照区相比,经过生态修复工作的金矿生态修复区土壤pH值、电导率、有机质、总氮、全钾的含量普遍较低;植物物种较少,以人为撒播草种的藜科植物占优势;植物群落多样性指数低,与原生对照联系紧密;植物群落主要受土壤有机质、有效磷、速效钾等含量的影响。[结论] 在进行生态修复措施后,青河大沙沟和富蕴大沙沟的土壤理化性质和植物群落改善较明显,恢复效果显著。金矿恢复区由于恢复时间较短,所以植物种类稀少,群落稳定性低,土壤理化性质的含量普遍不高,还需要时间进行恢复。

    Abstract:

    [Objective] The restoration of soil and plant communities in a mining area after the implementation of ecological restoration measures was investigated in order to provide a basis for the evaluation of restoration measures in the mining area.[Methods] The study was conducted in the gold mine ecological restoration area at Ungulated Wildlife Nature Reserve in the Kalamaili Mountain of Xinjiang Wei Autonomous Region. The vegetation characteristics, plant community diversity, and soil physical and chemical properties were investigated and analyzed through sampling methods and laboratory experiments.[Results] Soil pH value, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total nitrogen, and total potassium in the gold mine ecological restoration area were generally lower than in the primary control area. There were fewer plant species, and the Chenopodiaceae plants from human sowing were dominant. The plant community diversity index was low and was closely related to the diversity index in the native control area. The plant community was mainly affected by the contents of soil organic matter, available phosphorus, and rapidly available potassium.[Conclusion] The soil physical and chemical properties and plant communities of Qinghe Dashagou and Fuyun Dashagou improved significantly after the ecological restoration measures, and the restoration effect was significant. Due to the short time available for recovery observations in this study, there were few plant species, low community stability, and generally low content of soil physical and chemical properties at all gold recovery areas. Therefore, these areas require still more time to recover.

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田燕菲,刘冬志,初红军,石攀基,马伟.卡拉麦里山有蹄类野生动物自然保护区金矿生态恢复区的土壤理化性质和植被群落特征[J].水土保持通报,2021,41(5):107-114

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  • 收稿日期:2021-03-29
  • 最后修改日期:2021-05-24
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-10-25