[目的] 掌握黄河中游多沙粗沙区水土流失空间分布状况，为黄河流域水土流失治理、生态环境保护和高质量发展提供数据支撑和科学建议。[方法] 利用2020年水土流失动态监测和1985，1999年全国水土流失遥感普查成果，开展黄河中游多沙粗沙区水土流失动态变化分析。[结果] ①研究区域水土流失面积减少43.22%，高强度水土流失面积减少90.80%，水土流失状况明显改善；1985—1999年和1999—2020年两个时段，前时段变化相对较小，后时段变化较大。②两个时段内水土流失强度均降低，1999—2020年降低幅度明显大于1985—1999年且高强度水土流失面积大幅减少。1985—1999年以剧烈侵蚀面积减少为主，1999—2020年强烈、极强烈、剧烈侵蚀等高强度侵蚀面积下降明显。[结论] 研究区生态环境状况改善的主要驱动力是区域水土保持监督管理工作的加强，预防保护与水土保持综合治理的协同推进，经济社会的发展，保护环境和生态政策的引导等。虽然研究区水土流失日趋严重的态势得到了遏制，但其依然是黄土高原乃至中国水土流失最严重的地区，后续仍需持续采取适宜措施保护好生态环境。
[Objective] The spatial distribution of soil erosion in the rich and coarse sediment areas of the Yellow River basin was studied in order to provide data support and scientific suggestions for soil erosion control, ecological environmental protection, and high-quality development in the Yellow River basin.[Methods] Dynamic changes of soil and water loss in rich and coarse sediment areas of the middle reaches of the Yellow River basin were analyzed based on dynamic monitoring of soil erosion in 2020 and the results of the national remote sensing surveys of soil erosion in China in 1985 and 1999.[Results] ① The area of regional soil and water loss decreased by 43.22%, the area of high-intensity soil and water loss decreased by 90.80%, and the status of soil erosion has been improved significantly over time. The changes in 1985-1999 were relatively small, while the changes in 1999-2020 were relatively large. ② The intensity of soil and water loss decreased in both periods. The decrease in 1999-2020 was significantly greater than in 1985-1999, and high-intensity soil erosion decreased significantly. In 1985-1999, the area of severe erosion mainly decreased, while in 1999-2020, the areas classified as intensive, extremely intensive, and severe erosion decreased significantly.[Conclusion] The main driving forces for the improvement of the ecological environment in the study area were the strengthening of the supervision and management of regional soil and water conservation, coordinated promotion of preventive protection and comprehensive management of soil and water conservation, economic and social development, environmental protection, and ecological policy guidance. Although the increasingly serious conditions resulting in soil and water loss in the Loess Plateau have been controlled, the region is still considered to be under the most severe soil erosion threat in China. It is still necessary to continue to take appropriate measures for the protection of the ecological environment.