[目的] 研究黄河流域生态保护和高质量发展规划区水土流失特征及其防治对策，为该区水土流失综合治理、生态环境建设和流域高质量发展提供科学参考。[方法] 基于2020年全国水土流失动态监测成果，分析水土流失面积、分布、特点等，提出水土流失综合防治对策。[结果] 规划区水土流失面积占土地总面积的33.97%，水土流失分布主要集中在黄河中游多沙区、腾格里—阴山北麓沙漠草原风沙区、湟水洮河黄土丘陵区和黄河源高地草原区等区域，沙地、旱地（6°以上）、天然牧草地和其他草地为水土流失重点发生地类，水土流失呈现面广量大、分布集中、侵蚀类型多样、高侵蚀强度面积较大等特点。[结论] 水土流失依然是黄河流域生态保护和高质量发展规划区面临的主要生态问题之一，水土流失防治应结合区域水土流失特点，科学布局，精细配置各类措施，推进规划区水土流失治理绿色发展。
[Objective] Soil erosion characteristics and prevention countermeasures in the Yellow River basin were studied in order to provide a scientific reference for comprehensive control of soil and water loss and high-quality development of the ecological environment in the region.[Methods] Soil and water loss data of 2020 were used to determine the area, distribution, and characteristics of soil erosion in the ecological protection and high-quality development planning area of the Yellow River basin. Comprehensive prevention and control measures for soil and water loss in this region were subsequently recommended.[Results] Areas of soil erosion accounted for 33.97% of the total land area. Areas of soil and water loss were mainly concentrated in the sandy region of the middle reaches of the Yellow River, the desert steppe sandy region of Tenggeri-north foot of the Yinshan Mountain, the loess hilly region of the Huangshui-Taohe River basin, and the highland grasslands region in the source area of the Yellow River. Sandy land, dry land (with slope greater than 6°), natural pasture, and other grasslands were the primary locations for soil erosion. Soil erosion presented the characteristics of wide area and large amounts, concentrated distribution, diverse erosion types, and large areas of high erosion intensity.[Conclusion] Soil erosion is still one of the main ecological problems in the ecological protection and high-quality development planning areas of the Yellow River basin. Prevention and control of soil erosion should be combined with the characteristics of regional soil erosion, scientific layout, and various carefully configured measures to promote the green development of soil and water loss control in the planned area.