云南省老山自然保护区地貌特征及其对土地利用类型分布的影响
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国家自然科学基金项目“多元根隐喻认识论下哈尼梯田人地关系的变化、机制及遗产保护研究”(41861030),“亚热带高原表层喀斯特带结构和植被的协同演进机制研究”(41371514)


Geomorphological Characteristics and Their Impacts on Land Use Patterns in Laoshan Nature Reserve of Yunnan Province
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    [目的] 研究云南省老山自然保护区的地貌特征及其对土地利用的影响,为该区及类似保护区资源环境管理和生物多样性保护提供支撑。[方法] 以滇东南老山自然保护区为例,基于12.5 m分辨率的DEM数据,将野外地质地貌调查与数字地形分析相结合,选择海拔、起伏度、坡度、坡向、面积—高程积分、地形剖面等揭示该区地貌特征,选择地形位指数、分布指数等定量化指标探讨地貌特征对土地利用类型的影响。[结果] ①保护区共有3个山地海拔类型、6个坡度等级、6个基本地貌类型和具有南北差异的坡向分布特征,这些地形因子进一步在碳酸盐岩和花岗岩等岩性基础上发生分异。②在地形因子和构造、岩性综合作用下,保护区内各子流域的面积—高程积分值在0.279~0.763,平均值为0.501,保护区整体处于地貌演化的壮年早期阶段,在子流域尺度上则表现出幼年期、壮年期和老年期地貌多样共存的空间格局。③随着海拔、坡度和地形位指数梯度的增大以及坡向由阳坡向阴坡的转变,以人为因素占主导的土地利用类型逐渐丧失优势地位,进而被以自然过程为主导的土地利用类型所替代。[结论] 独特的地貌空间格局特征和丰富的生境类型既是保护区生物多样性的重要支撑,也是土地利用类型空间配置形成的重要原因。

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    [Objective] The geomorphic characteristics of Laoshan Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province and its impacts on land use were studied in order to provide support for resource and environmental management and biodiversity conservation in this area and in similar nature reserves.[Methods] The study was conducted at the Laoshan Nature Reserve in Southeast Yunnan Province. Field geological and geomorphic survey data were combined with digital topographic analysis using DEM data with 12.5 m resolution. Elevation, relief, slope, aspect, hypsometric index and topographic profile were selected as parameters to characterize the geomorphic features of the area. Quantitative indexes such as topographic potential index and distribution index were selected to discuss the influence of geomorphic features on land use types.[Results] ① There were three mountain elevation types, six slope grades, six basic geomorphic types, and the distribution characteristics of slope direction with north-south difference. These topographic factors were further differentiated on the lithologic basis of carbonate rock and granite; ② Under the comprehensive action of topographic factors, structure, and lithology, the hypsometric integral of each sub-basin in the reserve ranged from 0.279 to 0.763, and the average hypsometric integral was 0.501, indicating that the reserve was in the early stage of geomorphic evolution. At the sub-basin scale, the reserve showed a spatial pattern of diverse coexistence of juvenile, mature, and old geomorphic stages; ③ As elevation, slope, and topographic index gradient increased, and as slope changed from sunny to shady, the land use type dominated by human factors gradually lost its dominant position and was replaced by the land use type dominated by natural processes.[Conclusion] Unique geomorphic spatial patterns and abundant habitat types are not only important supports for biodiversity, but also important reasons for the formation of spatial allocation of land use types.

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王平,丁智强,华红莲,李玉辉,段霄.云南省老山自然保护区地貌特征及其对土地利用类型分布的影响[J].水土保持通报,2021,41(5):287-295

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  • 收稿日期:2021-06-01
  • 最后修改日期:2021-06-27
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-10-25