基于遥感数据的银川市城市公园对城市热环境降温效应分析
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宁夏回族自治区自然科学基金项目“基于遥感的银川市城区热环境时空格局形成机制及其与地表参数响应关系研究”(2020AAC03444);宁夏回族自治区财政厅财政专项“银川都市圈城市地质调查项目”(宁财(预)发[2017]320号)


Analysis on Cooling Effect of Urban Parks on Urban Thermal Environment in Yinchuan City Based on Remote Sensing
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    [目的] 研究宁夏回族自治区银川市城市公园对城市热环境降温效应的影响,为改善城市热环境措施的制定提供科学依据。[方法] 基于Landsat 8数据反演了银川市城区17个公园的地表温度,利用景观格局和缓冲区分析方法,探讨城市公园斑块特征和景观空间结构特征对城市内部热环境的响应规律,定量分析城市公园对周边环境降温效应的辐射范围和变化幅度,研究典型公园水域景观的热环境效应。[结果] ①银川市公园景观斑块特征差异较为显著且对其内部温度影响明显,其内部温度与面积、周长呈显著负相关,而与周长面积比呈显著正相关。②公园内部温度与公园景观构成、斑块形态特征和景观空间分布特征关系密切,降温效应与绿地和水体面积显著负相关,与公园景观形状指数、绿地景观形状指数、不透水面形状指数以及水体聚集度指数显著负相关。③17个公园景观对周边热环境降温效果较为显著,拟合结果显示最大降温影响距离主要分布在200—300 m之间,总体上对100 m区域范围内降温效果最为明显。④面状水域能够有效降低水域周边地表温度,比线状水域对城市热岛效应具有更好的降温效果。[结论] 在城市公园规划和设计时,应综合权衡公园斑块和景观空间结构特征对其降温效果的影响,适当增加公园和绿地斑块边界形状的复杂度,进而更好地改善城市热环境。

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    [Objective] The cooling effect of city parks on the urban thermal environment in Yinchuan City, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region was studied in order to provide guidance for policy-making to improve cooling of the urban thermal environment.[Methods] Land surface temperature (LST) was retrieved from Landsat 8 remote sensing data, and 17 city parks in Yinchuan City were selected to determine the influence of spatial characteristics of the parks' patch characteristics and landscape spatial structure on the internal thermal environment of the city. The cooling effect distance of city parks to the surrounding thermal environment was analyzed, and its affecting extent was quantified. Further research on the thermal environment effect of a typical urban park water area landscape was carried out using landscape pattern and the buffer analysis method.[Results] ① The landscape patch characteristics were significantly different, and the impact on the internal temperature of the park was significant. The internal temperature was significantly negatively correlated with area and perimeter, but significantly positively correlated with perimeter area ratio. ② The internal temperature of the park was closely related to landscape composition, patch morphology, and landscape spatial distribution. The cooling effect was negatively correlated with the area of green space, waterbody, landscape shape index, green landscape shape index, impervious surface shape index, and water aggregation index. ③ The cooling effect of the 17 park landscapes on the surrounding thermal environment was significant, with the maximum cooling distance mainly distributed between 200 m and 300 m. The cooling effect was most obvious within 100 m. ④ Water patches could effectively reduce LST around the water area, and had a better cooling effect on the urban heat island effect than linear water.[Conclusion] During the planning and design of city parks, designers should comprehensively weigh the impact of park patches and landscape spatial structure characteristics on their cooling effects, focus on the area of park green spaces and water bodies, and try to appropriately increase the complexity of boundary shapes of parks and water patches in order to better improve the cooling effect of the urban thermal environment.

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张晓东,赵银鑫,马风华,刘乃静,张勇,褚小东,吴文忠.基于遥感数据的银川市城市公园对城市热环境降温效应分析[J].水土保持通报,2021,41(5):338-347

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  • 收稿日期:2020-12-29
  • 最后修改日期:2021-05-31
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-10-25