[目的] 评价湖南省水资源承载力，为区域制定水资源、社会经济发展和生态环境协调发展政策提供理论参考。[方法] 通过构建系统耦合协调度模型及综合评价指标体系，分析湖南省2009—2018年水资源—社会经济—生态环境系统耦合协调的时空演变过程。[结果] ① 2009—2018年湖南省及各市州水资源承载力除湘潭市外，均呈上升趋势，同时空间上呈现“U”型特征； ②在时间维度上，耦合协调度呈波动增长态势，耦合协调状态由初级向中级协调转变； ③从空间维度看，耦合协调度呈现：西部>东部>中部的地区差异，但总体由不均衡逐渐转向整体协同发展，其中张家界市耦合协调最好，常德市耦合协调度增长最快，湘潭、衡阳、邵阳等市处于较低水平。[结论] 湖南省水资源承载力与耦合协调发展态势较好，但时空差异显著；可从产业结构优化、节水排污科技投入、资源优势转化、绿色生态农业发展等方面加大政策支持以提高湖南省水资源承载力，实现高质量的可持续发展。
[Objective] The water resource carrying capacity in Hu'nan Province was evaluated in order to provide a theoretical reference for the regional formulation of coordinated development policies of water resources, socio-economic development, and ecological environment.[Methods] The spatio-temporal evolution process of the coupling coordination development of water resources, social economies, and ecological environmental systems in Hu'nan Province from 2009 to 2018 was analyzed by constructing a coupling coordination development model and a comprehensive evaluation index system.[Results] ① The water resource carrying capacity of all cities in Hu'nan Province (except Xiangtan City) from 2009 to 2018 showed an upward trend, and at the same time, showed a U-shaped in space. ② Coupling coordination development showed a fluctuating growth trend as state changed from primary to intermediate. ③ Coupling coordination development from the spatial dimension showed regional differences, from high to low appearing in the west area, east area, and central area. However, the overall imbalance gradually turned to overall coordinated development, with Zhangjiajie City being the best, Changde City being the fastest growing, and Xiangtan, Hengyang and Shaoyang cities being at a low level.[Conclusion] The coordinated development trend of water resource carrying capacity and coupling in Hu'nan Province were in a good condition, but there were significant differences in time and space. In order to improve the carrying capacity of water resources and achieve high-quality sustainable development, the policy support, aiming to improve the carrying capacity of water resources and achieve high-quality sustainable development, could be issued by Hu'nan Province. Which will be respectively enhanced from the perspectives of industrial structure optimization, investment in water conservation and pollution discharge science and technology, the transformation of resource advantages, and green ecological agriculture development.