[目的] 分析地形和土地利用对坝控小流域侵蚀速率的影响，为黄土丘陵沟壑区土壤侵蚀治理和水土保持措施的制定提供理论依据。[方法] 基于无人机(unmanned aerial vehicle，UAV)摄影测量技术获取流域高分辨率数字高程模型(digital elevation model，DEM)和影像数据并准确提取流域的地形因子和土地利用要素，采用偏最小二乘回归方法确定坝控小流域地形和土地利用对土壤侵蚀速率的影响及其相对重要性。[结果] 坝控小流域侵蚀速率变化范围为2 869～14 191 t/(km2·a)，平均侵蚀速率为9 984 t/(km2·a)；坝控小流域的地形和土地利用因子存在一定差异，LS因子与L因子、连通性指数(IC)与地形湿度指数(TWI)、流域面积(A)与流域长度(BL)和形状因子(Ff)之间存在显著相关性(p＜0.01)；侵蚀速率偏最小二乘回归模型中最大VIP值为坡长因子(VIP=1.66;RCs=0.30)，其次是地形湿度指数(VIP=1.62;RCs=0.25)、坡度坡长因子(VIP=1.43;RCs=0.27)、连通性指数(VIP=1.39;RCs=-0.19)、农地面积占比(VIP=1.03;RCs=0.10)和草地面积占比(VIP=1.03;RCs=-0.10)。[结论] 各坝控小流域侵蚀速率存在显著差异，坡长因子、坡度坡长因子、地形湿度指数、连通性指数、农地面积比例和草地面积比例是影响流域侵蚀速率的重要影响因子，且VIP值都大于1。
[Objective] The influence of topography and land use on the soil erosion rate of dam-controlled catchments was analyzed in order to provide a theoretical basis for soil erosion control and soil and water conservation measures in a loess hilly and gully region. [Methods] A high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) and image data for catchments were obtained by use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry technology. Topographical factors and land use of the catchments were accurately extracted. Partial least squares regression was used to determine the impact and relative importance of topography and land use on soil erosion rate in dam-controlled catchments. [Results] The variation range of soil erosion rate in dam-controlled catchments was 2 869~14 191 t/(km2·yr), with an average value of 9 984 t/(km2·yr). Differences existed in topographic and land use factors in dam-controlled catchments. Significant correlations (p＜0.01) were observed between LS factor and L factor; connectivity index (IC) and topographic wetness index (TWI); catchment area (A) and watershed length (BL) and shape factor (Ff). From the partial least squares regression of soil erosion rate, the maximum VIP value was detected for the slope length factor (VIP=1.66; RCs=0.30), followed by topographic wetness index (VIP=1.62; RCs=0.25), LS factor (VIP=1.43; RCs=0.27), connectivity index (VIP=1.39; RCs=-0.19), percentage of agricultural area (VIP=1.03; RCs=0.10), and percentage of grassland area (VIP=1.03; RCs=-0.10). [Conclusion] There were significant differences in soil erosion rate in the dam-controlled catchments. Slope length factor, LS factor, topographic wetness index, connectivity index, percentage of agricultural area, and percentage of grassland area were important factors influencing soil erosion rate, with all having VIP values greater than 1.