[目的] 分析各地质建造单元的水土流失情况与生态地质特征之间的关系，为河南省罗山县水土流失防治规划与修复提供参考。[方法] 基于修正的通用水土流失方程(RUSLE)，利用遥感和GIS手段对河南省罗山县主要建造单元的水土流失的情况进行计算和统计，查清水土流失强度及面积；从地质建造及特征角度分析典型建造水土流失的影响因素。[结果] ①由于形成时代、物质成分、地质背景不同，各建造单元生态地质特征存在差异； ②罗山县水土流失分布具有明显的建造空间差异性，白垩纪酸性岩浆岩建造单元水土流失率高达50.1%，泥盆纪变类复理石建造水土流失率仅为13.5%。[结果] 土壤结构、植被因子、地形坡度是影响水土流失分布差异的重要因素，在制定水土流失与修复规划时，应重点考虑相关因素。
[Objective] The relationship between soil erosion of each formation unit and ecological geological characteristics was analyzed in order to provide a reference for soil erosion prevention and for control planning and restoration in Luoshan County, He’nan Province. [Methods] Based on the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE), soil erosion of main formation units in Luoshan County was calculated and counted by means of remote sensing and GIS, and the intensity and the area of soil erosion was determined. The influencing factors of soil erosion in a typical formation were then discussed from the perspectives of geological formation and characteristics. [Results] ① Due to differences in formation times, material compositions, and geological backgrounds, the eco-geological characteristics of each formation unit were different; ② The distribution of soil erosion in Luoshan County had obvious spatial differences. The soil erosion rate of the cretaceous acid magmatic rock formation unit was as high as 50.1%, while the soil erosion rate of the devonian metamorphic flysch formation unit was only 13.5%. [Conclusion] Soil structure, vegetation factors, and terrain slopes were important factors affecting the differences in soil erosion distribution, which should be considered in the planning of soil erosion prevention and rehabilitation.