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西辽河流域通辽平原区地下水埋深与植被及土壤特征的关系
朱永华1, 张生1, 孙标1, 赵胜男1, 张颖2, 刘志强3
1.内蒙古农业大学 水利与土木建筑工程学院, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010018;2.呼和浩特环境科学研究所, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010018;3.通辽市水利规划设计研究院, 内蒙古 通辽市 028000
摘要:
[目的]揭示地下水埋深与植物群落特征及土壤理化特性相关关系,为西辽河流域通辽平原区生态环境健康和谐发展提供依据。[方法]运用时空替代和土壤单重分形等方法,定量分析植被群落和土壤颗粒变化特征,并探讨二者对地下水埋深变化的响应机理。[结果]不同地下水埋深条件下植被特征与多样性指标值大小顺序为2-3 m > 1-2 m > 0-1 m >(>4 m) > 3-4 m;研究区表层土壤粒度组成以粉粒为主,其中粉粒含量在52.03%~84.78%之间,土壤颗粒平均粒径从大到小依次为3-4 m,>4 m,0-1 m,1-2 m和2-3 m,颗粒分形维数分别为2.34~2.49之间;分选级别分别为较差、差、较差、较差和差;偏度等级分别为近于对称、近于对称、近于对称、负偏和负偏;各种样地峰态均属很尖窄。[结论]研究区植被群落的演替表现为随着地下水补给条件的变化呈非地带性草甸植被向地带性典型草原植被的演替过程,地下水埋深2-3 m处为植被演替临界范围。
关键词:  地下水埋深  植被  土壤  通辽平原区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.01.005
分类号:
基金项目:水利部公益性行业科研专项"半干旱区水循环与水生态安全关键技术研究"(201501031);国家自然科学基金项目"冻融过程中湖泊污染物多介质迁移转化规律及机制研究"(51339002,51569019,51509133);内蒙古自然科学基金项目(2016MS0406、2017BS0510)
Relationship Between Groundwater Depth and Characteristics of Vegetation and Soil in Tongliao Plain
Zhu Yonghua1, Zhang Sheng1, Sun Biao1, Zhao Shengnan1, Zhang Ying2, Liu Zhiqiang3
1.College of Water Conservation and Civil Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia 010018, China;2.Hohhot City Environmental Science Research Institute, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia 010018, China;3.Water Conservancy Planning and Design Research Institute, Tongliao, Inner Mongolia 028000 China
Abstract:
[Objective] To explore the relationship between groundwater depth and plant community characteristics and soil physicochemical property, in order to provide a basis for the healthy and harmonious development of ecological environment in Tongliao Plain of West Liaohe River basin. [Methods] Based on the methods of space-time substitution and soil single fractal, the vegetation community characteristics and soil physicochemical property were quantitatively analyzed, and their response mechanism to the change of groundwater depth was discussed. [Results] ① The order of the vegetation diversity indexes under different groundwater depth was showed as: 2-3 m > 1-2 m > 4 m > 3-4 m > 0-1 m. ② The topsoil particles were mainly composed of silt with the content between 52.03% and 84.78%. The average size of soil particles was ranked as: 3-4 m, >4 m, 0-1 m, 1-2 m and 2-3 m. ③ The kurtosis were all very narrow. The fractal dimensions were between 2.34 and 2.49. The distributions of soil particle size were all in poor sorting. Correspondingly, the skewness were nearly symmetrical, nearly symmetrical, nearly symmetrical, negative sand negative, respectively. [Conclusion] With the change of groundwater recharge conditions, the succession of vegetation community in the study area is a process from non-zonal meadow vegetation to the zonal typical steppe vegetation. The critical range of vegetation succession is 2-3 m underground water depth.
Key words:  groundwater depth  vegetation  soil  Tongliao Plain