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容重对铁尾矿水分运移特征的影响
陈丹1, 吕春娟1,2, 郭星星1, 王煜1, 郭岩松1, 梁建才1
1.山西农业大学 资源环境学院, 山西 太谷 030801;2.山西农业大学 农业资源与环境国家级实验教学示范中心, 山西 太谷 030801
摘要:
[目的]探究紧实度对铁尾矿水分运移特性的影响,为铁矿区水土保持及植被恢复提供科学依据。[方法]采用室内一维土柱试验和张力计法,分别测定1.50,1.55,1.60,1.65,1.70 g/cm3这5个容重水平下的入渗过程及水分特征曲线。[结果]①随着容重增加,铁尾矿入渗能力降低,容重与稳渗率、湿润峰距离、累积入渗量呈显著线性负相关关系(p<0.05);②铁尾矿剖面水分含量随土层深度的增加而下降,1.50~1.60 g/cm3含水量在不同深度上分层明显,1.65和1.70 g/cm3尾矿砂剖面含水量分异性较小;③Green-Ampt模型拟合铁尾饱和导水率与实测值相关系数为0.886,计算精度较高,Kostiakov模型拟合不同容重铁尾矿入渗过程效果最佳(R2=0.989);④铁尾矿在脱湿过程中,高容重下持水能力明显下降,1.60 g/cm3持水保水性最好,van Genuchten模型拟合水分特征曲线表明,饱和含水率(θs)、残余含水率(θr)、进气值(α)、形状系数(n)等参数随容重增大而减小。[结论]高度压实严重抑制铁尾矿水分入渗和持水能力,因此复垦修复中应以疏松尾矿基质改善结构特性为主。
关键词:  铁尾矿  容重  水分入渗过程  水分入渗模型  水分特征曲线
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.01.013
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年项目"铁矿干排尾矿坡面生态恢复侵蚀调控机理研究"(41401619);山西农业大学引进人才科研启动项目(2014ZZ07);山西省研究联合培养基地人才培养项目(2016JD21)
Effect of Bulk Density on Water Transport Characteristics of Iron Tailings
Chen Dan1, Lü Chunjuan1,2, Guo Xingxing1, Wang Yu1, Guo Yansong1, Liang Jiancai1
1.College of Resources and Environment, Shanxi Agricaltural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China;2.National Expermental Teaching Demonstration Center for Agricaltural Resources and Environment, Shanxi Agricaltural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China
Abstract:
[Objective] To investigate the influence of compactness on water transport characteristics of iron tailings sand, in order to provide scientific support for soil and water conservation and vegetation restoration in iron mining area. [Methods] The infiltration process and water characteristic curves were measured by means of one-dimensional soil column test and tensometer method at five bulk weight levels of 1.50, 1.55, 1.60, 1.65 g/cm3 and 1.70 g/cm3. [Results] ① As the bulk density increased, the infiltration capacity of iron tailings decreased, and the bulk density had a significant linear negative correlation with the stability of the iron tailings, the cumulative infiltration and the wetting peak distance (p<0.05). ② The water content of the tailings of 1.50~1.60 g/cm3 was obviously stratified with depths, and the water content of the tailings sands of 1.65 g/cm3 and 1.70 g/cm3 was less. ③ The correlation coefficient between the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the iron tailings and the measured value of the Green-Ampt model was 0.886, and the calculation accuracy was high. The Kostiakov model was the best for fitting the different weight-bearing iron tailings infiltration process (R2=0.989). ④ During the dehumidification process, the water holding capacity drop significantly at levels of high bulk density made. The water holding and water retention performance was the best at levels of 1.60 g/cm3. The water characteristic curve fitted with van Genuchten model showed that the saturated water content, residual moisture content, air intake value and shape coefficient decreased with the increase of bulk density. [Conclusion] High compactness seriously inhibited water infiltration and water holding capacity of iron tailings. Loosing tailings matrix should be used to improve the structural properties in the reclamation.
Key words:  iron tailings  bulk density  water infiltration process  water infiltration model  moisture characteristic curve